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介词

编辑词条

介词(preposition) (简写prep.)是一种表示名词、代词等与句中其他词的关系,在句中不能单独作句子成分。介词后面一般有名词代词或相当于名词的其他词类,短语或从句作它的宾语。介词和它的宾语构成介词词组,在句中作状语,表语,补语或介词宾语。介词可以分为时间介词、地点介词、方式介词、原因介词、数量介词和其他介词。

编辑摘要
中文名: 介词 英文名: Preposition
类型 : 社会科学

目录

介词 - 定义

介词(The Preposition)又叫做前置词,通常置于名词之前。它是一种虚词,不需要重读,在

11
句中不单独作任何句子成分,只表示其后的名词或相当于名词的词语与其他句子成分的关系。中国学生在使用英语进行书面或口头表达时,往往会出现遗漏介词或误用介词的错误,因此各类考试语法的结构部分均有这方面的测试内容。

介词 - 介词的种类

 英语中最常用的介词,按照不同的分类标准可分为以下几类:
(1). 简单介词、复合介词和短语介词
①.简单介词是指单一介词。如:
at , in ,of ,by , about , for, from , except , since, near, with 等。
②. 复合介词是指由两个简单介词组成的介词。如:
Inside, outside , onto, into , throughout, without , as to as for , unpon, except for 等。
③. 短语介词是指由短语构成的介词。如:
In front of , by means o f, on behalf of, in spite of , by way of , in favor of , in regard to 等。
(2). 按词义分类
{1} 表地点(包括动向)的介词。如:
About ,above, across, after, along , among, around , at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between , beyond ,by, down, from, in, into , near, off, on, over, through, throught, to, towards,, under, up, unpon, with, within , without 等。
{2} 表时间的介词。如:
About, after, around , as , at, before , behind , between , by, during, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, till(until) , to, towards , within 等。
{3} 表除去的介词。如:
beside , but, except等。
{4} 表比较的介词。如:
As, like, above, over等。
{5} 表反对的介词。如:
againt ,with 等。
{6} 表原因、目的的介词。如:
for, with, from 等。
{7} 表结果的介词。如:
to, with , without 等。
{8} 表手段、方式的介词。如:
by, in ,with 等。
{9} 表所属的介词。如:
of , with 等。
{10} 表条件的介词。如:
on, without , considering 等。
{11} 表让步的介词。如:
despite, in spite notwithstanding等。
{12} 表关于的介词。如:
About, concerning, regarding ,with regard to, as for , as to
{13} 表对于的介词。如:
to, for over , at , with 等。
{14} 表根据的介词。如:
on, according to 等。
{15} 表其他的介词。如:
for(赞成),without(没有)等。
2. 介词短语
(1).介词短语的构成 介词之后出现的名词、代词或其他相当于名词的结构、短语或从句叫介词宾语。介词短语是指介词和介词宾语构成的短语。介词短语的构成主要有下面的形式:
{1} 介词+名词。如:
The headmaster lives near the school
校长住在学校附近。
{2} 介词+名词性从句。如:
I am curious as to what she will say.
我很想知道她想说什么。
{3} 介词+代词。如:
What do you know about him ?
关于他,你都知道些什么?
{4} 介词+动名词短语或其复合结构。如:
He is interested in swimming.
他对游泳感兴趣。
The painter is keen on collecting coins
那位画家喜欢收集硬币
There are no risk of you being late
你不会迟到的。
{5} 介词+连接词或连接副词引导的从句或不定式。如:
Your success will largely depend upon how you do it.
你成功与否将主要取决于你怎样做。
The teacher gave us a talk on how to study English .
老师给我们做了一个如何学英语的讲座。
{6} 介词+数词。如:
Six from twelve is six
12减6等于6。
{7} 介词+形容词。如:
We know her of old
我们老早就认识了她。
{8} 介词+副词。如:
They worked all day and had a hurried luch in between .
他们工作了一整天,中间匆匆吃了一顿饭。
(2). 介词短语的作用
介词短语在句中可作多种句子成分:
{1} 作主语。如:
From the library to the teaching building is a 5 minutes’ walk.
从图书馆到教学楼要走五分钟。
{2} 作表语。如:
Are you for the plan?
你赞成这个计划吗?
I was at my grandma’s yesterday.
我昨天在我奶奶家。
{3} 作宾语。如:
He gave me until tomorrow.
他给我的期限是到明天。
The dog came out from behind the tree..
狗从树后出来。(behind the tree 作介词from 的宾语)
{4} 作定语。如:
She is a woman of strong character.
她是位性格坚强的女人。
The expert will give us a lecture on how to improve soil.
这个专家将给我们作一个如何改良土壤的讲座。
{5} 作补语。如:
He woke up and found himself in hospital
他醒来发现自己在医院里。(in hospital作宾补)
As a doctor ,he is always patient with the patients
作为一个医生,他一贯对患者很耐心。(As a doctor 作主补)
{6} 作状语。如:
I wil be free on Tuesday morning.
星期二上午我有空。(时间状语)
We’ll meet at the station .
我们将在火车站碰面。(地点状语)
She covered her face with her hands and cried
她用双手捂着脸哭。(方式状语)
He left home and worked in a big city for the sake o f money .
他为了赚钱,离家到一个大城市工作。(目的状语)
The tree died from want of water .
这棵树因缺水而死。(原因状语)
In spite of all his effort ,he failed
尽管他很努力,但还是失败了。(让步状语)
No living thing can live without water.
生物离开水都无法生存。(条件状语)
With the words, he came into the room他说着话就进来了。(伴随状语
To a great extent, it is not fair .
在很大程度上,这是不公平的。(程度状语)
In general her works have been good, but this one is dreaful.
总的来说,她的作品很不错,不过这篇很糟。?( in general 作评注性状语)
It doesn’t seem ugly to me , on the contrary, I think it’s very beautiful.
我觉得它不丑,恰恰相反,我觉得它很美。(on the cntrary作连接性状语)

介词 - 介词与其他词类的固定搭配

介词常常和形容词、名词、动词等构成固定搭配,即某些词的后面常要求特定的介词以表示固定的意义。
(1).形容词与介词的固定搭配
形容词与介词的固定搭配
{1} 形容词+about
Angry with对……生气  anxious  about担心 calm about对……很平静
care bout小心   careless about粗心   certain about对……有把握
curious about对……好奇  sure about确信  doubtful about对……怀疑
enthusiastic about对……热情的;热心的   hopeful about对……抱希望
frank about对……坦白的;坦率的  incredulous about对……不相信
{2} 形容词+at
clever at擅长于……  expert at对……熟练的  good at擅长于……
indignant at对……愤慨的  quick at做……敏捷  slow at 对……反应慢
surprised at对……吃惊
{3} 形容词+for
anxious for渴望的   eligible for有资格的  famous for因……而著名
fit for对某人适宜   hungry for对……渴望  late for迟到
possible for可能   qualified for有资格的  ready for准备好
responsible for对……负责   necessary for为……所必需
{4} 形容词+from
absent from缺席  free from使……摆脱  prohibited from禁止某事物
safe from安全  detached from分开某物  different from与……不同
{5} 形容词+in
absorbed in专心于   disappointed in对……失望  experienced in有经验
expert in 在……熟练  fortunate in有幸   interested in对……感兴趣
rich in富于;盛产   successful in在……成功
{6} 形容词+ of
afraid of害怕  ashamed of羞耻  aware of知道  certain of确信
fond of喜爱   guilty of有罪的   proud of骄傲  short of缺乏
sick of厌烦  tired of厌倦  worthy of值得
{7} 形容词+to
contrary to与……相反  determined to有决心的  equal to等于
familiar to为……所熟悉  favourabel to对……有利  harmful to有害的
inclined to准备做某事  indifferent to对……不在乎  similar to相似;相同
{8} 形容词+with
angry with对……感到恼火  annoyed at对……烦恼  busy with忙于
crowded with拥挤  familiar with精通;熟悉  friendly with与……友好
nervouse with对……感到紧张  patient with对……有耐心  popularwith受欢迎
satified with对……满意
{9} 形容词+on
dependent on依靠  intend on坚决;专心 keen on热衷于某事物 severe on严格的
(2). 名词与介词的固定搭配
{1} 介词+名词。如:
at the cinema在电影院 at university上大学
  from……point of view从某人的角度  for the sake of为了
in poerty 在穷困中  in earnest有决心的
on sale在出售    on the average平均的 on the contrary相反地
on the radio 通过收音机  to some extent某种程度
to one’ssurprise让某人吃惊  to one’sdelight让某人高兴
{2} 名词+介词。如:
dependence on依靠    independence on不依靠
discussion about/on关于……的讨论   hundres on数以百计的
thousands of成千上万的    influence on对……的影响
explanationof/for对……的解释     half of……的一半
the idea of……的主意    lack of缺乏
proof of……的证据     reason of……的原因
Responsibility for对……的责任     success in/at在……成功
(3). 动词与介词的固定搭配
{1} 动词+介词 agree with同意;赞同 arrive at到达 arrive in到达
fall behind 落后 come from来自 sonsist of由……组成
get to到达 hear from收到……来信 hear of听说
laugh at嘲笑 listen to听 look after照看;照料
look at看 look for寻找 look like看起来

{2} 动词+副词+介词 catch up with赶上; 超过
do well in在……方面做得好 get on with与某人相处
go on with继续 take care of关心 take part in参加

介词 - 备战高考必须要注意复合介词

请看几道高考真题:

1. _________ fire, all exits must be kept clear. (天津卷)

A. In place of B. Instead of

C. In case of D. In spite of

2. The open-air celebration has been put off _________ the bad weather. (浙江卷)

A. in case of B. in spite of

C. instead of D. because of

3. I have offered to paint the house _________ a week’s accommodation. (山东卷)

A. in exchange for B. with regard to

C. by means of D. in place of

这三道题的答案分别为CDA。通过这几道题我们可以看出,高考英语似乎对“介词+名词+介词”这类复合介词似乎有着非同寻常的“感情”,所以同学们在平时学习或复习中也不可不重视。本文根据高中英语教材和高考考试大纲,同时结合近几年的高考英语考题情况,为大家总结了以下20个复合介词,供同学们参考。

1. in advance of 在……前面。如:

He is far in advance of his class. 他在班上遥遥领先。

I shall walk a few steps in advance of you. 我将走在你前面几步。

2. in case of 一旦,以防,如果。如:

In case of fire, call 119. 倘若有火灾,就打119电话。

The wall was built along the river in case of floods. 为了防洪,沿河筑了堤。

3. in charge of 担任,指挥,管理,负责照料。如:

He was placed in charge of the department. 他受命管理这个部门。

She is in charge of our class. 她担任我们的班主任。

4. in course of 在……过程中,在……时,在进行中。如:

The new railway is in course of construction. 新铁路正在兴建当中。

The goods ordered are now in course of shipment. 定的货正在运输途中。

5. in danger of 有……的危险。如:

The patient is in danger of death. 病人有死亡的危险。

These goods are in danger of robbery. 这些货物有被盗的危险。

6. in defense of 保卫,保护,为……辩护。如:

Is there any man unwilling to fight in defense of his country? 难道有谁不愿为保卫祖国而战吗?

He wrote a book in defense of his doctrine. 他写了一本书为自己的学说辩护。

7. in favour of 赞成……,以……为受款人。如:

Was he in favour of the death penalty? 他赞成死刑吗?

Cheques should be written in favour of Mr Smith. 支票上请写明以史密斯先生为受款人。

8. in front of 在……前面。如:

There is a pond in front of the house. 房屋前面有个池塘。

You shouldn’t discuss that in front of the children. 你不应该当着孩子的面谈论那类事。

9. in memory of 纪念……。如:

He founded the charity in memory of his late wife. 他兴办那项慈善事业以纪念他已故的妻子。

A service was held in memory of the dead. 为死者举行了悼念仪式。

10. in need of 需要……。如:

We are all in need of a rest. 我们全都需要休息。

Are you in need of help? 你需要帮助吗?
11. in place of 代替。如:

Won’t you go in place of me? 你能代替我去吗?

Who is here in place of the manager? 谁在这里代理经理?

12. in possession of 占有,持有,拥有。如:

The chief was in possession of a large quantity of stolen property. 那个头目占有了大量偷盗来的财产。

Anyone found in possession of this poison will be punished. 凡是被发现拥有此种毒药者均将受到惩罚。

13. in search of 寻找,寻求。如:

He emigrated to Brazil in search of a better life. 他为寻求更好的生活,移民到巴西。

Scientists are in search of a cure for the disease. 科学家想研究出治疗这种疾病的方法。

14. in spite of 尽管。如:

The match was played in spite of the awful weather. 尽管天气恶劣,比赛仍然进行。

In spite of all her hard work, she failed her exam. 她虽然很努力,可是考试不及格。

15. in terms of 用……的字眼,从……的观点。如:

It is difficult to express it in terms of science. 要用科学的字眼来表达它是很困难的。

Let each child read in terms of his own tastes and choices. 让每个孩子阅读根据自己的兴趣爱好选择的书籍。

16. in addition to 除……外。如:

She speaks five foreign languages in addition to English. 除英语外,她还会说五种外语。

In addition to his salary, he has a bonus of 6 yuan per month. 除工资外,他每月还有6元钱奖金。

17. instead of 代替,而不是。如:

Use eggs instead of meat. 用鸡蛋代替肉。

Let’s play cards instead of watching TV. 咱们玩纸牌吧,别看电视了。

18. in exchange for 用……作为交换。如:

I give his Chinese lessons in exchange for English lessons. 我用汉语课与他换英语课。

I’ll give you three sweets in exchange for an apple. 我拿3块糖换你一个苹果。

19. by means of 用,依靠。如 (自www.yygrammar.com):

He got into the house by means of an open window. 他从一扇开着的窗户爬进屋去。

They were able to position the yacht by means of radar. 他们能够用雷达测定快艇的方位。

20. with [in] regard to 关于,就……而论。如:

What did he say with regard to my proposals? 关于我的建议他说了什么?

介词 - 最近14年(含2008年)高考英语语法题详解

1. The train leaves at 6:00 p.m. So I have to be at the station __________ 5:40 p. m. at the latest. (NMET 1997)

A. until B. after

C. by D. around

2. __________ production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. (NMET 2000)

A. As B. For

C. With D. Through

3. The home improvements have taken what little there is __________ my spare time. (NMET 2001)

A. from B. in

C. of D. at

4. I wanted two seats __________ Madame curie for Friday night, so I rang the cinema to see if I could book two tickets. (1998上海卷)

A. of B. about

C. to D. for

5. __________ most students, she was always well prepared and never came to class late. (1998上海卷)

A. Like B. As

C. For D. To

6. The number of the employees has grown from 1,000 to 1,200. This means it has risen __________ 20 percent. (1999上海卷)

A. by B. at

C. to D. with

7. The sunlight came in __________ the windows in the roof and lit up the whole room. (2001上海卷)

A. through B. across

C. on D. over

8. Luckily, the bullet narrowly missed the captain __________ an inch. (2002上海卷)

A. by B. at

C. to D. from

9. The conference has been held to discuss the effects of tourism __________ the wildlife in the area. (2003上海卷)

A. in B. on

C. at D. with

10. Rose was wild with joy __________ the result of the examination. (2001上海春)

A. to B. at

C. by D. as

11. Marie Curie took little notice __________ the honors that were given to her in her later years. (2002上海春)

A. of B. on

C. about D. from

12. —What do you want __________ those old boxes?

—To put things in when I move to the new flat. (2002北京)

A. by B. for

C. of D. with
13. They had a pleasant chat __________ a cup of tea. (2003北京)

A. for B. with

C. during D. over

14. —You are so lucky.

—What do you mean __________ that? (2002北京春)

A. for B. in

C. of D. by

15.In order to change attitudes__________ employing women, the government is bringing in new laws. (2004北京春)

A. about       B. of

C. towards     D. on

16. You can’t wear a blue jacket __________ that shirt — it’ll look terrible. (2004湖南卷)

A. on B. above

C. up D. over

17. __________ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. (2004北京卷)

A. With B. Besides

C. As for D. Because of

18. It was a pity that great writer died __________his works unfinished. (2004福建卷)

A. for B. with

C. from D. of

19. I feel that one of my main duties __________ a teacher is to help the students to become better learners. (2004广东卷)

A. for B. by

C. as D. with

20. The accident is reported to have occurred __________the first Sunday in February. (2004上海卷)

A. at B. on

C. in D. to

……

未完,完整文件请到www.yygrammar.com/Article/download查阅!

【答案及解析】

1. C。by 意为“不迟于(not later than / before)”,表示“在5:40前我必须到达车站。”until 与肯定句连用表示结束的时间,即“我不得不一直呆在车站直到5点40分(就不要在车站了)”。after(在…之后)和 around (大约)与语境不符。

2. C。为 with 复合结构,表原因。

3. C。have taken 后是一个宾语从句,其正常的语序是 what little of my spare time there is,由于调换了词序,增加了难度。句意为:房屋装修占去了我仅有的一点业余时间。

4. D。seat 指车上、戏院、音乐厅等的“座位”; Madame Curie 是电影名称; 表示“某部电影座位(票)”,用 for。又如 book two seats for the concert 订两张音乐会的票。

5. A。介词 like 意为“像…一样”。句意为“像大多数学生一样,她总是做好准备,上课从来不迟到。”。as作为…; for / to sb 对于某人来说。

6. A。表示增加或减少了多少,要用介词 by。

7. A。表示某物体从内部“穿过”窗户要用 through。across 指从平面的一边“横过”到另一边; over 指“越过”某个障碍物。

8. A。介词 by 表示程度。又如 The carpet is too short by three feet.(那地毯短了3英尺)。本题句意为:幸运的是,子弹在距离船长一英尺的地方与他擦肩而过,没有射中他。

9. B。表示“对…的影响”用 effect on。

10. B。at 表示原因。be wild with joy at?意为“为…而欣喜若狂”。at 常接在某些表示情感变化的形容词或动词等后面表示原因。
11. A。take notice of (注意)是固定短语。

12. D。由下文可知,是问箱子的用途。with 表示“用”某种工具。

13. D。over (=while doing / having / eating, etc.)意为“在(做)…期间”。本题取自《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》P.1046的 over 词条的原句。句意为:我们一边喝茶一边愉快地聊天。

14. D。What do you mean by that? 意为“你那么说是什么意思?”。

15. C。an attitude towards / to…为固定搭配。

16. D。因为over可表示“附于某人或某物之上并将之部分或全部遮住”,而其余三者都无此用法。on在…的表面上(与某物接触); above高于; up向上。

17. A。因为to worry about是宾语补足语,选项中只有with才能接“宾语+宾补”(复合宾语)。此处用with的复合结构表示原因。

18. B。因为unfinished是宾语his works的补足语。选项中只有with能接“宾语+宾补”,此处用with的复合结构作伴随状语。

19. C。因为as 在表示职业、身份的名词前,意为“作为”。表示“被”的by、表示“和…一起”的with很易排除; 而for是用以引出不定式的逻辑主语,请比较:It is a duty for a teacher to help....

20. B。表示具体的某一天、星期几,或者具体某天或星期几的上午、下午或晚上,用介词on。表示钟点或时刻用at,还有at noon, at night, at daybreak/dawn。表示年、季度、月份、星期等不是具体的某一天,都用in。

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  1. 创建者: 亚美
  2. 编辑次数: 11次 历史版本
  3. 参与编辑人数: 6
  4. 最近更新时间:2014-05-01 15:05:38