• 正在加载中...
  • 复合句

    复合句也称主从句,即主句和从句,从句须有引导词或叫连词引出,否则复合句不成立。由于连词既起连接主句和从句的作用,表明主从句之间的关系,还在从句中充当一定的成份,有一定的意义,故复合句中的连词常成为考查的焦点。

    编辑摘要

    目录

     

     

    简介/复合句 编辑

     复合句 (Complex Sentence)由一个主句(Principal Clause)和一个或一个以上的从句(Subordinate Clause)构成。

    主句是全句的主体,通常可以独立存在;从句则是一个句子成分,不能独立存在。

    从句不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。所不同在于,从句须由一个关联词(connective)引导。

    具体介绍/复合句 编辑

     复合句(The ComplexSentence):句子中有一个或一个以上的从句,叫做复合句。复合句可分为:

    1).定语从句(The Attributive Clause);

    2).状语从句(The Adverbial Clause);

    3).名词性从句(The Noun Clause)

    一、       定语从句
    ·        定语从句的定义

    定语从句在句子中作定语,用来修饰一个名词、名词词组或者代词。

    ·        先行词引导词

    被修饰的名词、名词词组或代词叫做先行词;

    在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫做引导词。

    引导词分为“关系代词”和“关系副词”。

    ·       关系代词关系副词
    关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which, as。

    关系副词有:when, where, why。 注意:关系副词里面没有how。

    如果要修饰方式,用that或in which引导,或者不用引导词。

    I don’t like the way (that, in which) he eyed me.

    我不喜欢他看我的那个样子。

    ·        关系代词:who

    关系动词who在从句中主要作主语,在非正式语体里who还可以作从句中的宾语。

    He is the man who wants to see you.

    He is the man who I saw in the park yesterday.  

    ·        关系代词:whom

    He is the man (whom) I saw in the park yesterday.  

    (whom在从句中作宾语)

    ·        关系代词:whose

    whose 用来指人或物,(只能用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换)。

    They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.   

    Please pass me the book whose cover is green.   (of which the cover/the cover of which)

    ·        关系代词:which(1)

    which指物,在从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时在非正式语体中可以省略。

    They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice.

    The farm (which) we visited yesterday is located in the suburb of Beijing.

    ·        关系代词:which(2)

    当在which和that面前进行选择的情况下,一下情况要选which:

    1.在非限制性定语从句中通常用which作引导词,而不能用that做非限制性定语从句的引导词。

    2. 修饰整个主句

    I never met Julia again after that, which was a pity.

    3. 修饰谓语部分。

    He can swim in the river, which I cannot.

    4. 介词 + which

    They are all questions to which there are no answers.

    ·        关系代词:that(1)

    that多用来指物,有时也可以用来指人;在从句中作主语或宾语。指物的时候多用that,也可用which。

    It’s a question that (which) needs careful consideration.

    (指物,作主语。)

    Who is the man that is reading a magazine under the tree?

    (指人,作主语。)

    The girl (that) we saw yesterday is Tom’s sister.

    (指人,作宾语,可省略。)

    ·        关系代词:that(2)

    在以下的情况中,只能用that作引导词,而不能用which作引导词。

    1. 先行词为all , everything, anything, nothing, little等不定代词时。

    All (that) she lacked was training.  

    2. 先行词被形容词最高级修饰时

    This is the best film that I have ever seen.

    3. 先行词被序数词和the last修饰时

    4. 先行词中既有人又有物时

    They talked about the teachers and the schools that they had visited.

    5. 主句是含有who或which的特殊疑问句,为了避免重复时

    二、        状语从句

    1 地点状语从句

    地点状语从句通常由where, wherever 引导。

    Where I live there are plenty of trees.

    Wherever I am I will be thinking of you.  

    2 方式状语从句

    方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。

    1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…","就像",多用于正式文体,例如:

    Always do to the others as you would be done by.

    你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。

    As water is to fish, so air is to man.

    我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水

    Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds.

    正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。

    2) as if, as though

    两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似的","好像……似的",例如:

    They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.

    他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

    He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting.

    他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

    It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.

    看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)

    说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如:

    He stared at me as if seeing me for first time.

    他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。

    He cleared his throat as if to say something.

    他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。

    3 原因状语从句

    比较:because, since, as和for

    1) because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。

    I didn't go, because I was afraid.

    Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.

    2) 由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗 号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。

    He is absent today, because / for he is ill.

    He must be ill, for he is absent today.

    4 目的状语从句

    表示目的状语的从句可以由that, so that, in order that, in case等词引导,例如:

    You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all.

    Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold.

    5 结果状语从句

    结果状语从句常由so… that 或 such…that引导,掌握这两个句型,首先要了解so 和 such与其后的词的搭配规律。

    比较:so和 such

    其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。

    so foolish       such a fool      

    so nice a flower    such a nice flower   

    so many / few flowers  such nice flowers   

    so much / little money. such rapid progress   

    so many people     such a lot of people   

    ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。)

    so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。

    The boy is so young that he can't go to school.

    He is such a young boy that he can't go to school

    6 条件状语从句

    连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。.

    if 引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。

    unless = if not.  

    Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired.

    If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk.

    7 让步状语从句

    though, although

    注意: 当有though, although时,后面的从句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用

    Although it's raining, they are still working in the field.

    3) ever if, even though. 即使

    We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.

    4) whether…or-  不管……都

    Whether you believe it or not, it is true.

    5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"

    No matter what happened, he would not mind.

    Whatever happened, he would not mind.

    替换:no matter what = whatever

    no matter who = whoever

    no matter when = whenever

    no matter where = wherever

    no matter which = whichever

    no matter how = however

    注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。

    (错)No matter what you say is of no use now.

    (对)Whatever you say is of no use now.

    你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say是主语从句)

    (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,

    (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。

    8 比较while, when, as

    1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。

    Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me.

    2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用when 引导这个从句,不可用as 或 while。

    When you have finished your work, you may have a rest.

    3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用as,不用when 或while。

    As the day went on, the weather got worse.

    日子一天天过去,天气越变越坏。

    9 比较until和till

    此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可 以。 正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。

    肯定句:

    I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。

    Wait till I call you.  等着我叫你。

    (在肯定句中可用before代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.)

    否定句:

    She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock.

    Don't get off the bus until it has stopped.

    1)Until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首。

    Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened.

    直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。  

    2)Until when 疑问句中,until要放在句首。

    ---Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候?

    --- Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。

    注意:否定句可用另外两种句式表示。

    (1)Not until …在句首,主句用倒装。

    Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is.

    直到19 世纪初,人类才知道热能是什么。

    Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.

    直到我开始工作,我才认识到了我已蹉跎了几多岁月。

    (2) It is not until… that…

    10 表示"一…就…"的结构

    hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than 和as soon as都可以表示"一…就…"的意思,例:

    I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain.

    I had no sooner got home than it began to rain.

    As soon as I got home, it began to rain.

    注意:如果hardly, scarcely 或no sooner置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构:

    Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain.

    No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

    三、        名词性从句

    1).宾语从句(The Object Clause);

    ·        宾语从句

    在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。宾语从句的引导词和主语从句的引导词相同。宾语从句可以作及物动词的宾语,作短语动词的宾语,介词的宾语。

    ·        宾语从句:及物动词

    Everybody knows that money doesn't grow on trees.

    ·        宾语从句:短语动词

    Please go and find out when the train will arrive.

    ·        宾语从句:介词的宾语

    I am interested in what she is doing.

    ·        宾语从句:否定的转移

    I don't suppose you're used to this diet.

    我想你不习惯这种饮食。

    I don't believe she'll arrive before 8.

    我相信她8点之前不会到。

    2).表语从句(The predicative Clause);

    ·        表语从句

    在句子中起表语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。表语从句的引导词和主语从句的引导词相同。

    What the police want to know is when you entered the room.

    This is what we should do.

    That's why I want you to work there.

    as if, as though, because也可用来引导表语从句。

    She seems as if she had done a great thing.

    It is because you eat too much.

    ·        虚拟语气:表语从句

    主语是idea, notion, proposal, suggestion, request等名词时,作表语从句的动词为原形动词或should+原形动词。

    My suggestion is that we (should) go and help him.

    Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible.

    3).同位语从句(The Appositive Clause)。

    ·        同位从句一般跟在某些名词如answer(答案),hope(希望),fact(事实),belief (信仰),news(消息),idea(主意;观念),promise(承诺),information(信息),conclusion(结论),order(命令), suggestion(建议),problem(问题),thought (想法)等后面。例如:

    I had no idea that you were here.

    She told us her hope that she would become a pianist.

    He made a promise that he would never come late.

    ·        同位语从句:whether

    whether可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用whether作为引导词。

    He hasn’t made the decision whether he will go there.

    I have small doubt whether he is suitable for the job.

    ·        同位语从句:what

    what可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用what作为引导词

    I have no idea what he is doing now.

    ·        同位语从句:how

    how可以引导同位语从句,而定语从句不能用how作为引导词

    It’s a question how he did it.

    ·        同位语从句和定语从句的区别(1)

    同位语从句和先行词是同等的关系;而定语从句是用来修饰先行词,是从属的关系。

    ·        同位语从句和定语从句的区别(2)

    that在同位语从句中没有词义,不充当句子成分;而在定语从句中充当主语、宾语等句子成分。

    ·        同位语从句和定语从句的区别(3)

    whether, what, how可以用来引导同位语从句;而它们不能用来引导定语从句。

    相关文献

    添加视频 | 添加图册相关影像

    互动百科的词条(含所附图片)系由网友上传,如果涉嫌侵权,请与客服联系,我们将按照法律之相关规定及时进行处理。未经许可,禁止商业网站等复制、抓取本站内容;合理使用者,请注明来源于www.baike.com。

    登录后使用互动百科的服务,将会得到个性化的提示和帮助,还有机会和专业认证智愿者沟通。

    互动百科用户登录注册
    此词条还可添加  信息模块

    WIKI热度

    1. 编辑次数:6次 历史版本
    2. 参与编辑人数:6
    3. 最近更新时间:2013-03-23 07:23:52

    互动百科

    扫码下载APP