Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence1 firms work, too.
Companies located in place with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper. 2 , firms in happy places spend more on R&D(research and development).That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investment for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would 5 the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
7 enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were8. But it is really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researches controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest like size, industry , and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was11 to live in, like growth in wages or population. They link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors 13 to “less confined decision making process” and the possible presence of younger and less 14 managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.’’ The relationship was15stronger in places where happiness was spread more16. Firms seem to invest more in places.
17 this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least 18at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19how executives think about the future. It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward –thinking and creative and 20R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] sure [B] odd [C] unfortunate [D] often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C] emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D] compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D] experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share
20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send act
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers–but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but“we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the“Ruby on Rails”language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn – how to think logically through a problem and organize the results – apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes–for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coaxthe machine into producing what they want –the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that –the better.
21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________
C. career prospects
D. academic backgrounds
23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________
A . help students learn other computer languages
B .have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C .need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______
A. bring forth innovative computer technologies
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. compete with a future army of programmers
25.The word“coax”(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened .“The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ,”said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the” threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species,” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough.“The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, ” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The“threatened”tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.
What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read:“Give up TV”or“Carry a book with you at all times.”But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption.” Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
In fact,“becoming more efficient”is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them.” No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us“step outside time's flow”into“soul time.”You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.
31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because .
[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .
[A] update their to-do lists
[B] make passing time fulfilling
[C] carry their plans through
[D] pursue carefree reading
33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .
[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
[B] develop online reading habits
[C] promote ritualistic reading
[D] achieve immersive reading
34. “Carry a book with you at all times”can work if .
[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be .
[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
[B] How to Find Time to Read
[C] How to Set Reading Goals
[D] How to Read Extensively
Against a backdrop ofdrastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those “just getting started in life” face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said.”I can’t afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen.” Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young.“I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn’t have college degrees,”Schneider said.“I don’t think people are capable of that anymore. ”
36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is.
[A] trying out different lifestyles
[B] having a family with children
[C] working beyond retirement age
[D] setting up a profitable business
37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to.
[A] favor a slower life pace
[B] hold an occupation longer
[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
[D] give priority to childcare outside the home
38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will.
[A] become increasingly clear
[B] focus on materialistic issues
[C] depend largely on political preferences
[D] reach almost all aspects of American life
39. Both young and old agree that.
[A] good-paying jobs are less available
[B] the old made more life achievements
[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
[D] getting established is harder for the young
40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
[A] He found a dream job after graduating from college
[B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success
[C] His parents’ good life has little to do with a college degree
[D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A. Be silly
B. Have fun
C. Ask for help
D. Express your emotions.
E. Don’t overthink it
F. Be easily pleased
G. Notice things
Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age.
(1) As adults, it seems that we’re constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don’t need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it’s time to learn a few lessons from them.
(2) What does a child do when he’s sad? He cries. When he’s angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don’t dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That’s about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we feel appropriately and then-again, like children-move on.
A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn’t bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.
Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels.
The problem with being a grownup is that there’s an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it’s important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)-it doesn’t matter, so long as they’re enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you’re on a tight budget.
Having said all of the above, it’s important to add that we shouldn’t try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said:“Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness.” And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.
Section III Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you’ll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you’ll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally—which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
Section IV Writing
Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to
1) thank him, and
2) give you advice
You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do notsign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
2、【答案】B In particular
【解析】根据空格处前后的内容，_____ for making investments for the future是做后置定语修饰longer-term thinking和happiness。幸福，这种持久的思维模式对于对未来进行投资_______，四个选项中只有D. necessary做后置定语符合前后内容。其他选项与原文内容语义不符。
【解析】空格处的内容与inclination for risk-taking由and连接，构成并列关系，后面that come with happiness定语从句既修饰空格处的内容，也修饰inclination for risk-taking，所以选项中可以由that come with happiness修饰的只有C选项optimism。
【解析】空格处的内容和the way companies invested构成动宾搭配。选项中A. echo回声B. miss思念C. spoil溺爱D. change改变，所以只有D选项可以和the way companies invested构成通顺语义。故D项正确。
【解析】原文：So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness_______ by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.所以他们比较美国城市的平均幸福,这种幸福是根据盖洛普在上市公司的投资活动地区民意调查来________。A imagined想象，D assumed假定与民意调查的客观性是不符的，故排除，C invented发明，与文意不符，故选B measured，衡量，测量。
【解析】若要判断此空的答案，需要结合文章上下文来判断。这句话和本篇完型的第二段的首句的含义是相同的。第二段的首句：Companies located in places with happier people invest more，含义为：坐落在幸福人们多的地方的公司会加大研发投入力度。本段首句其实是对于这一中心的重复阐述，因此选A。
【解析】原文：firms’investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were _________.公司的投资与研发强度与公司所_______的地区的幸福度相关。依据第7题的答案，我们可以推断，这句话所填写的单词和located应该是近义，A advertised广告；B divided分割；C overtaxed负担过重；均与本文含义不符，故选D，headquartered设立总部。
【解析】原文：…could something else about happier cities ______ why firms there spend more on R&D?此句也是对于本文中心的再次论证。还有其他的什么可以__________公司在幸福的城市加入研发投入力度吗？这句话之后就是具体的原因陈述。B overstate夸张；C summarize总结；D emphasize强调；均不符合文意，所以以上三项皆排除。故选A express解释，阐释。
【解析】原文：To find out, the researchers controlled for various ________that might make firms more likely to invest—like size, industry, and sales ,为了找到答案,研究人员控制了各种各样的可能会让公司加大投资的_______——比如大小、行业和销量——，联系上下文，我们可以看出，这个空格其实就是下文size, industry, and sales的上义词，可以包含这三个名词的内容。A stages阶段；C levels水平，标准；D methods方法；均不符合文意。故选B factors原因，因素。
【解析】该句意思为：研究者掌控了各种使公司更愿意投资的因素（比如规模、行业、销售），也掌控了居住起来____的住处的征兆（比如工资或人数的增长）。此处需填入形容词，前后两句为并列关系，感情色彩应保持一致，所填词应和空前more likely to invest更可能投资，以及空后like举例的内容涨工资一致，也是好事，所以答案desirable可取的、令人满意的为正确选项。Sociable善于交际的，reputable有声望的，reliable可靠的虽为正向词汇，但均与上下文衔接不紧密，因此答案为desirable。
【解析】该句话上一句为The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong，此句为The relationship was 15 stronger，显然，二者之间为并列关系，因此选择also也。Thus表结果，instead表转折，never从不，不符合此处逻辑。
【解析】空格所在句的前半句质疑了投资与幸福的关系，后半句的作者表现的态度是“believe”，因此此处要填入一个表积极立场的词，且能与后面的at that possibility构成搭配，表明“作者”的认可态度。A选项arrive“到达”，B选项jumps“跳跃”，D选项strikes“打击；罢工”，均不能与at that possibility搭配，C选项hints“暗示”符合语意，因此正确答案为C。
20、【答案】B lean towards
【解析】此处考察固定词组。A选项pray for意为“为……祈祷”，B选项lean towards意为“向……倾斜”，C选项give away意为“泄露；失去；赠送”，D选项send out意为“发送，发出”。空格所在句的前后语意为“快乐的人比普通人更加的具有正向思维，更有创造力，并且更加的_____研究和发展。”可知最符合文意的只能是选项B。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21、【答案】[B]remodel the way of thinking
【解析】观点题。根据题干Cortina holds回文定位在第二段。第二段指出Cortina认为过早的接触电脑是有益的，紧接着指出当小孩子学习电脑科学，他们就学习了如何去开发手机应用程序，或者创作艺术，或者验证假设。对于他们来说与大孩子相比，改变思维并不难。综上所述，[B]remodel the way of thinking是对原文“transform their thought”的同义置换。
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键信息“in delivering lessons for high-schoolers”、“Flatiron has considered”，定位到第三段。整个第三段在叙述Flatiron School。其中，第三行The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but“we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in”（高中生们上同样的课程，但是“我们力图以他们的兴趣来调整课程”），表明了该校开设课程的依据是“学生的兴趣”，故选[B] interest。
23、【答案】[A] help students learn other computer languages
24、【答案】[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world
【解析】推理题。根据题干关键词“the last paragraph”和“Flatiron students”回文定位在最后一段。最后一段第一句指出Flatiron的学生不会全都进入IT界。紧接着第二句说明培养编码人员不是唯一目的，第三句进一步指出这些学生将会一生“被电脑包围”（生活在电脑时代），对比四个所给选项，[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world与原文意思一致，故正确。
【解析】词义题。根据题干关键信息“coax”(Line 4, Para.6)，定位到最后一段第四行how to coax the machine into producing what they want（如何…电脑生产他们想要的），且该部分是与how computers think（电脑是如何思维的）并列的，都是学生学习的具体内容。正是因为两者并列，因此根据单词think可知coax同样含有一定比喻色彩，且coax指的是“让电脑生产他们想要的”一种手段或方式。将四个选项分别带入原文：[A] persuade“劝说，劝诱”，即“劝诱电脑生产他们想要的”，语意恰当，是正确选项；[B] frighten“吓唬，使惊吓”，即“吓唬电脑去生产他们想要的”，该方式带有贬义色彩，故排除；[C] misguide“误导”，与[B]同理，故排除；[D] challenge“挑战”，即“挑战电脑去生产他们想要的”，语义不通顺，故排除。因此，本题正确答案为[A] persuade。
26、【答案】[A] its drastically decreased population
【解析】本题属于细节题，考查了考生对文章首段中关于草原鸡数量的变化的理解。根据对首段首句当中生物学家预测的数量是2百万，而在首段末句出现but转折以及末句当中关于草原鸡现在真实的剩余数量只有2万2千只，都可以说明草原鸡的数量急剧的下降；另外，这道题还有一种做法是通过第二段首句的主语的作用，某些情况下，文章中间段落的首句主语起到承上启下的作用，那么中间段落首句主语就会有概括上一段的作用，本文第二段的首句：The crash was a main reason USFWS decided to formally list the bird as threatened.就是对第26题题干和正确选项的同义替换，根据第二段第一句的主语：the crash (这种暴跌)，对应正确选项A.
27、【答案】[D] went against conservation policies
【解析】本题属于推理题，根据题干信息：the“Threatened”tag令许多环境学家感到失望，定位到第二段的第三句，因此，原因应该出自第三句之后，而第四句和第五句中间有很明显的转折词but,因此答案定位在第五句，很多同学可能会问，这里并没有表示原因的词去与题干当中的in that进行对应，但是在我们的钻石卡的课程中提到，原文当中给出原因的并不一定是直接给出表示原因的连词或者介词，在本文第三句的but Ashe and others argued that the“threatened”tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservation approaches.当中的gave这个词是“使得”的意思，A使得B如何如何，也就是A是B的原因，因此这道题的答案是D (违反了保护措施)。
28、【答案】[B] volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
【解析】本题属于推理题，根据题干当中给出的位置信息（第三段）以及表示条件与结果的逻辑关系的if这个信息，可以迅速定位到第三段的第一句，其中题干当中的if与文章当中的as long as进行对应，而题干当中的表示结果的部分与as long as之前进行对应，因此，正确选项应该出自as long as之后，也就是原文当中的：they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat.“签订一系列管理计划去恢复草原鸡的栖息地”，对应到的正确选项是B (volunteer to set up an equally big habitat帮助搭建同样大小的栖息地)
29、【答案】[D] the states
【解析】本题属于细节题。答案定位在文章第三段最后一句，从Ashe所说的话中“states remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species”可以得出，选项D the states在管理物种方面起着领导作用。
30、【答案】[B] the win-win rhetoric
31、【答案】[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
【解析】细节题。根据题干回文定位到第二段第一句“what makes…management techniques don't seem sufficient”,，但是这句并没有提及原因。真正的原因是第二段最后一句“Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient”。（深度阅读需要的不仅仅是时间，而且仅仅通过高效率所获得的那种时间也不够），因此选项D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed为正确答案。
32、【答案】[B] make passing time fulfilling
【解析】细节题。根据题干回文定位到第三段第五句：we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles(days, hours, minutes) as they pass。故正确答案应该与to fill…相一致。这句话中将时间单位天，小时和分钟比喻成了不同大小的瓶子。而压力来自于我们填充这些大小不一的瓶子时，即把自己的时间充实起来时。故正确答案为选项B，其中passing time是原文as they pass的同义替换，making…fulfilling是to fill的同义替换。
33、【答案】[D] achieve immersive reading
【解析】细节题。根据题干定位到第四段第二句：…such ritualistic behavior helps us“step outside time’s flow”into“soul time.（这种仪式化行为指代有助于我们从拜托时间流进入灵魂阅读），soul time即选项D中immersive reading (沉浸式阅读)，故正确答案为选项D。题干“scheduling regular times for reading helps”是题干中的“such ritualistic behavior helps”的同义改写，“soul time”是“immersive reading”的同义替换。
34、【答案】[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
【解析】细节题。根据题干中的carry a book with you at all times can work if,可以定位到第四段倒数第二句“providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state”（假定你经常沉浸在阅读中，以至于阅读成为一种默认设置），因此可以确定选项A reading becomes your primary business of the day（阅读成为你一天中的主要事情）为正确答案。
35、【答案】[B] How to Find Time to Read
【解析】主旨题。根据文章首段转折之后出主旨。But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There’s never any time to read.（但是其中一个特别悲哀的抱怨是：没有时间阅读）。第二、三、四段都在论证深度阅读才是解决之道。因此选项Dhow to find time to read为正确答案。
36、【答案】[B] having a family with children
【解析】根据题干给出的mark, successful life等词可以定位到第二段的第一句话，successful life可以找到原词，而mark对应milestone，including后面的内容就是这种生活的特征，包含“结婚，有孩子，有家，60岁退休”，和选项对比，只有B项符合原文给出的特征，属于同意替换。A项这里未提，略有干扰的是后面but句中的different paths，但这和题干不符，C项的退休后工作和原文刚好相反，D项未提到。
37、【答案】[C] attach importance to pre-martial finance
【解析】根据题干给出的段落序号可以定位到第三段，另又提到young people，故可以定位到第三段开头第一句话。题干问的是年轻人倾向于……，题干中的tend在这句话中可以找到同意置换词more likely，句子中后面有5个to do表示年轻人倾向于做什么，所以答案就在这些动词不定式中。和选项对比，只有C项符合原文的含义“婚前或者有孩子之前要有经济保障”，属于同意替换。A项这里未提，也不符合当下年轻人的生活习惯，B项和原文刚好相反，原文说的是经常换工作来提升职业，而选项说的是长时间做一份工作，D项只是有childcare outside the home和原文一样，但是原文说的是父母都工作对孩子好，选项则是说年轻人更注重照顾孩子，两者含义并不相符。
38、【答案】[D] reach almost all aspects of American life
【解析】根据题干给出的the priorities and expectations等词可以定位到第四段的第一句话的中间，that后面的内容是对这两个名词的修饰，故答案应该在这个从句中。和选项对比，只有D项符合原文，ripple through和选项中的reach属于同意替换。A项和B项这里均未提，C项只是politics和preferences这两个词有在文中出现，但是语义并不相符。
39、【答案】[D] getting established is harder for the young
【解析】根据题干给出的young and old等词可以定位到第五段开头，这句话有冒号，解释key point，所以答案应该在冒号之后，题目问的是他们同意什么，也就是观点，所以可以再缩小范围为believe后面的内容为正确选项的含义。和选项对比，只有D项符合原文，属于同意替换。A项和C项这里均未具体提及，B项相对干扰性强，但是文中只是提到说在实现这些重要成就时，晚辈会比长辈遇到更艰难的挑战，并不是说老辈比晚辈创造了更多的成就，故排除。
40、【答案】[C] His parents’good life has little to do with a college degree
【解析】根据题干给出的Schenider可以定位到最后一段开头。这段话开头就说这个人认为今天的生活更艰难，后面的内容都在介绍他的生活。因为题干除了这个人名之外并没有给出其他更细定位的信息，可以选择从选项定位入手反推正确答案。A项“他毕业后找到一个理想工作”，文章只在最后一段第二句后面说到这个问题，但并没有说这个工作是dream work，故排除。B项的work steady在第三局也有提到，但并没有说是父母认为的，故排除。C项说到父母的好生活在第四、五句有提到，尤其引号中的内容和选项相符，故为正确答案。D项认为工作很有挑战性，这并没有提到，属于无中生有。
41、【答案】D（Express your emotions）
【解析】emotions一词在本段中原词复现了两次，而且出现了其下义词，比如sad, angry，本段最后一句提到对待情绪的方式是：acknowledge and express what we feel appropriately。选项D与此完全对应。因此确定正确答案为D选项。
42、【答案】F（Be easily pleased）
【解析】该段通过举例来说明段落主题，提到it cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed，本句话的含义是“虽然礼物不值钱，但是让她特别开心”。并且核心词overjoyed与小标题F中pleased属于近义词。该段第二句话在转折后提到the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels，即“这些东西对我们的幸福水平影响很小。”接着最后一句总结到“感激生活中的小事情是提升我们幸福感的一个好方式”，因此本段重点在于强调要感激生活中的小事情，所以正确答案是F选项。
【解析】该段开头提及一个问题，那么问题的答案正是本段的中心句。第二句正是对问题的解答，根据本句话的前半部分：if we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling,核心词silliness与选项A中的silly为同源词，因此确定选项A为正确答案。
【解析】首先明确本段中第二句为转折句，在找段落中心时，是必读部分。本句话含义是“成年人有能力按照自己的想法去享受时光（enjoy the things)”，紧接着下句举例说明享受的这些快乐的事情分别有哪些。因此本段重点在于说明成年人可以按照自己的意愿享受快乐时光。故选择Have fun .
45、【答案】E (Don’t overthink it)
【解析】该段主题句是段落首句it’s important to add that we shouldn’t try too hard to be happy，强调“我们不应该着急要快乐”。第二句借科学家的话提到这样做的不良影响，下文更是引用哲学家庄子的话来证明这一论点，最后一句再次突出，我们应以孩子为榜样，对于孩子来说，快乐不是一个目标，而是他们生活方式的自然副产品。可见，该段整体上是总分的结构，先提出论点再论证。此外too hard与选项E中的overthink属于近义表达，natural与overthink是反义复现。因此，答案选E。
Section III Translation
句1：The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors.
【句子结构】简单句。句子的主干是“The supermarket is designed to……”,被动语态翻译的时候变为主动，不定式短语做目的状语，可以翻译为“旨在……”。“lure……into”表示引诱……做……，在这里可以意译为“意在……”。“as much time as possible”表示“尽可能长的时间……”
句2：The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you’ll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you’ll buy.
【重点词汇】the more……, the more……：越…，越…。
句3：And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff.
句4：The average supermarket, according to the Food Market Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more.
【句子结构】复合句。And连接了两个简单句。第一个简单句句子的主干是“The average supermarket carries items……”；第二个简单句句子的主干是“many carry……”.“according to……”表示“根据……”做方式状语。
【重点词汇】Food Market Institute:食品营销研究院, tens of thousands：成千上万。
句5：The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload.
【句子结构】简单句。句子的主干是“The sheer volume of available choice is enough”，不定式“to……”做目的状语，表示“足够去干……”。
句6：According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us.
【句子结构】简单句。句子的主干是“the demands……become……”，表示“需求……变得……”。短语“：According to……”做方式状语，表示“根据……”。
句7：After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally—which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
【句子结构】复合句。句子主干为most people stop struggling to be rationally selective and instead began shopping emotionally，其中instead和rationally，emotionally含转折和对比的意味。after about 40 minutes of shopping为介词短语做时间状语。which is the point是which引导的非限制性定语从句，修饰前面的整个句子。at which引导限制性定语从句，修饰point，相当于when，这个定语从句中主干成分为we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff，in our cart做地点状语。句中的最后一个that引导定语从句，修饰前面的先行词the 50 percent of stuff，整个句子中呈现从句套从句的句式。
Section IV Writing