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  • 道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟,美国著名军事家,1944年麦克阿瑟被授予陆军五星上将。第二次世界大战时期历任美国远东军司令,西南太平洋战区盟军司令;战后出任驻日盟军最高司令和“联合国军”总司令等职。他因在菲律宾战役中的表现获颁荣誉勋章,和父亲阿瑟·麦克阿瑟是史上第一对同时获得荣誉勋章的父子。麦克阿瑟是美国陆海空三军中获得勋章最多的将军,也是美国将军中唯一一个参加过第一次世界大战,第二次世界大战和朝鲜战争的人。麦克阿瑟被美国国民称之为“一代老兵”,麦克阿瑟是美国最年轻的准将、西点军校最年轻的校长、美国陆军历史上最年轻的陆军参谋长,其三个“最年轻”的经历堪称美国战争史上的奇才。

    编辑摘要
    词云

    科学 +
    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    二战时,麦克阿瑟率领一支百万大军踩着日本人的尸体,从遥远的墨尔本一直打到了东京。那他到底为什么成了他们心中的神?[详细]

    基本信息 编辑信息模块

    中文名: 道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 英文名: Douglas MacArthur
    籍贯: 美国阿肯色州 出生地: 美国阿肯色州小石城
    血型: O 国籍: 美国
    去世日期: 1964年4月3日 职业: 美国远东军总司令
    毕业院校: 西点军校 政党: 美国共和党
    代表作品: 《老兵永不死》 身高: 180cm
    军衔: 陆军五星上将 主要成就: 银星勋章(7枚
    父亲: 阿瑟·麦克阿瑟 母亲: 玛丽·平克妮·哈迪
    妻子: 路易斯·布鲁克斯、琼·费 儿子: 阿瑟·麦克阿瑟三世
    兄弟: 马尔科姆·麦克阿瑟

    目录

    人物简介/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    麦克阿瑟麦克阿瑟

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟(Douglas MacArthur,1880年1月26日~1964年4月3日),出生于阿肯色州(Arkansas)小石城(Little Rock)的陆军军营,他的父亲因参加南北战争曾获国会勋章。1903年,自西点军校以第一名的成绩毕业,成绩是西点军校创办一百年来最好的,总平均成绩超过98分。后被任命为少尉军官。第一次世界大战时任美军第四十二师师长,1919年被任命为美国西点军校校长,是美国陆军史上最年轻的西点军校校长。1937年,从军中退役。1941年,第二次世界大战爆发时被征召回到军中,担任美国远东军总司令,指挥在西南太平洋进行「跳岛战术」,有选择地攻占对美军推进有重要意义的岛屿。1944年,因为战功卓着,晋升为五星上将。

    人物生平/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    西点高材生

    约1890年,学生时代的麦克阿瑟。约1890年,学生时代的麦克阿瑟。

    1880年1月26日,出生在美国阿肯色州小石城郊外30公里一个的军人家庭。其父老阿瑟·麦克阿瑟二世最高曾担任美国陆军三星中将,他是启发麦克阿瑟成为军人的人。

    1899年,麦克阿瑟考入美国陆军军官学校(西点军校)。在校期间既刻苦攻读,又注重体育锻炼。4年之后以98.43分的成绩毕业,创下西点军校的毕业分数记录(此记录至今无人打破),被委任为工程技术兵团少尉;1904年4月23日,晋升为工程兵中尉。

    麦克阿瑟的签名麦克阿瑟的签名

    1905年,麦克阿瑟追随其父从事情报工作;1906年,成为美国陆军工兵学校学员,兼任西奥多·罗斯福总统的军事副官;1908年,调任工兵营连长,因训练有方而晋升为营部副官,稍后成为骑兵学校教官1911年晋升为上尉,次年调入陆军参谋部任职;1912年9月5日,老阿瑟·麦克阿瑟二世因心肌梗塞去世,为了纪念父亲,麦克阿瑟把自己孩子的名字取名为阿瑟·麦克阿瑟三世;1914年,被部队派遣到墨西哥的韦拉克鲁斯;1915年晋升为少校;1916年,调任陆军部长贝克的副官,负责与新闻界的联络事务。

    1917年,美国参加第一次世界大战后,从各州国民警卫队抽调人员组成第42步兵师,麦克阿瑟出任第42步兵师参谋长,晋升为上校,赴法国参加世界大战,他声称该师人员来自美国各地,犹如跨越长空的彩虹,故该师亦称“彩虹师”;1918年,因作战勇敢和指挥有方,数次获得勋章并升任第84旅准将旅长;6月26日,得到晋升,临时军衔为美国陆军准将;同年11月,在大战结束之后担任彩虹师代师长。战争时期,他与远征军总司令部人员结有怨恨。

    陆军参谋长

    就任西点军校校长就任西点军校校长

    1919年6月,39岁的麦克阿瑟被任命为西点军校校长,成为该校自创校以来最年轻的校长。他时刻把“责任—荣誉—国家”作为治校的座右铭。学校体育馆的上方,放着一块匾,上面镌刻着他的一句话:今天,在友好场地上播撒下的种子,明天,一定会在战场上收获胜利的果实!

    1922年2月,与路易丝·布鲁克斯结婚,但因妻子威胁到麦克阿瑟钟爱的军事事业,所以,他毅然离婚。年底赴菲律宾任马尼拉军区司令。

    1925年,麦克阿瑟晋升为少将,先后在亚特兰大和巴尔的摩任军长。同年,麦克阿瑟在米切尔准将(主张建立独立的空军)案件中奉命担任审判官,以至后来不得不在回忆录中为自己辩解。

    麦克阿瑟于1927年秋出任美国奥林匹克委员会主席,率美国代表队参加1928年在阿姆斯特丹举行的奥林匹克运动会并获得冠军。陆军参谋长为此致电祝贺:“你不仅获得了美国人决不撤退的美誉,而且获得了美国人深知如何获胜的光荣。”此后,麦克阿瑟调任驻菲律宾美军司令。

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    1930年8月,麦克阿瑟收到陆军部长来电,得知胡佛总统决定让他出任陆军参谋长。麦克阿瑟考虑到当时处于世界经济危机之际,和平主义思潮高涨,军费开支必将缩减,惟恐出力不讨好,遂有推辞之意。其母则力劝他接受该职,声称“如果你表现出怯懦,你父亲在九泉之下也会为此感到羞耻。”

    1930年11月,麦克阿瑟接受陆军四星上将的临时军衔,宣誓就任美国陆军参谋长。任内用机械化装备代替马匹,提高了部队的机动能力和速度,制定战争总动员计划;为诸兵种建立统一的采购制度以减少浪费,建立航空队司令部以提高地空部队的协调效率;反对国会因经济原因而欲裁减陆军机构的企图;反对削减军官队伍,声称“一支陆军可以缺乏口粮,可以衣住简陋,甚至可以装备破旧,但如缺少训练有素及指挥有方的军官,则在战时注定会被歼灭。胜利与失败的不同,全在于有无干练而有效率的军官队伍”;每年均成功地阻止削减陆军员额的议案,并为陆军的战备辩护。需要特别指出的是,作为陆军参谋长的麦克阿瑟于1932年不惜亲自披挂出马镇压华盛顿的美国退伍军人“退伍金进军”,史称华盛顿惨案。1933年罗斯福出任总统之后,麦克阿瑟继续担任陆军参谋长。

    1935年,麦克阿瑟的陆军参谋长任期届满,以少将军衔调任菲律宾政府总统奎松的军事顾问。

    1936年8月,获得菲律宾元帅军衔。

    1937年,从美国陆军退役。4月30日,与琼·费尔克洛思结婚;12月31日,出任菲律宾陆军总司令,开始组建菲律宾陆军。

    战区指挥官

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    1941年,第二次世界大战爆发时被征召回到军中,担任美国远东军总司

    令,指挥美国军队在西南太平洋战场进行“跳岛战术”,有选择地攻占对美军推进有重要意义的岛屿;6月,美国军方采纳“彩虹5号”计划,决定一开始与轴心国作战就把重点放在欧洲;7月,华盛顿下令将菲律宾陆军与驻菲美军合并,将麦克阿瑟转服现役,晋升为中将,任美国远东军司令部司令,下辖温赖特指挥的第1军和帕克指挥的第2军;12月8日, 日军继偷袭珍珠港之后,对菲律宾发动进攻。由于麦克阿瑟判断错误和处置失当,驻菲律宾的美军轰炸机和战斗机大部被毁,空中防御能力丧失殆尽,再加上美菲军兵力有限,装备低劣而缺乏训练,无法抵挡日军的进攻,麦克阿瑟几乎要拿父亲留下的手枪自杀,与菲律宾人民共存亡。

    1942年1月,日军进占马尼拉。日军随后多次进攻巴丹半岛,但未能成功。当日本广播电台的“东京玫瑰”嘲笑美国太平洋舰队的时候,麦克阿瑟要求陆军部派遣飞机飞越菲律宾上空以打击“敌人宣传的气焰”,稳定守军士气,然而这种要求没有也不可能得到满足;2月8日,罗斯福以国家的名义,再次命令麦克阿瑟及其家属撤离菲律宾;2月22日和23日,罗斯福和马歇尔连续给麦克阿瑟发电,让其撤离,并允诺让麦克阿瑟到澳大利亚指挥盟军反攻;3月,得到增援的日军向孤立无援的巴丹半岛等地的美菲军发起攻势,美国政府为避免麦克阿瑟成为俘虏,命令他将指挥权转交温赖特并赴澳大利亚担任西南太平洋战区盟军司令,指挥该区盟军作战;3月11日晚,麦克阿瑟无奈撤离,所有部队从马尼拉撤往巴丹半岛固守,宣布马尼拉为不设防城市;4月9日,巴丹美军及菲律宾军约75000人被迫向日军投降;5月6日,巴丹陷落后转移到哥黎希律岛指挥作战的温赖特被迫请求投降,并于次日通过马尼拉广播电台命令所有美菲军队投降。

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    抵达澳大利亚之后,麦克阿瑟率参谋长萨瑟兰先将司令部设在布里斯班,后又前移至莫尔斯比港,旨在稳住莫尔斯比,与日军在欧文·斯坦尼山那边决战。西南太平洋盟军的陆军司令为布莱梅爵士,空军司令先为布雷特,后为肯尼(所辖空中力量后来改编为美国陆军第5航空队),海军司令为利里。后来隶属麦克阿瑟指挥的还有美国海军第3舰队。美国陆军部队先后有克鲁格的第6集团军、艾克尔伯格的第8集团军和巴克纳的第10集团军(后由史迪威指挥)。鉴于另没有以海军的尼米兹为司令的太平洋战区,麦克阿瑟认为:“在有关这场战争的所有错误决定中,最莫名其妙的恐怕是没有建立太平洋的统一指挥。”经过1942年的中途岛战役和1943年的瓜达尔卡纳尔战役,盟军开始由战略防御转向战略进攻。1942年12月24日,麦克阿瑟晋升为上将。

    中途岛战役之后,日军陈兵新几内亚,企图通过直接攻击而夺占米恩湾,通过侧翼运动而攻克莫尔斯比港。麦克阿瑟对此作有正确判断,并制定出相应的作战计划。

    1943年,麦克阿瑟被任命为盟军西南太平洋战区总司令,他在1943年的最后进攻计划,设想从瓜达卡纳尔和巴布亚同时发动进攻,保卫新几内亚东北部和所罗门群岛,集中力量收复拉包尔。盟军采用麦克阿瑟的越岛战术,基本实现上述作战计划。麦克阿瑟称越岛战术“这种战争方式的实际应用,就是避免以大量的伤亡进行正面的攻击,就是避开日军据点;切断补给线,使他们无所作为;就是孤立他们的军队,使他们在战场上饿死。这就是我调动部队与拟定作战计划的指导思想。”

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    1943年,共和党政客有意让麦克阿瑟成为1944年大选的总统候选人。但是,1944年某些州的预选表明麦克阿瑟得票并不多。因而,麦克阿瑟只好声明无意参加总统竞选。

    1944年春夏,盟军攻克阿留申群岛,吉尔贝特群岛,所罗门群岛,新不列颠岛,新几内亚岛,马绍尔群岛,加罗林群岛和马里亚纳群岛等地。在此期间,麦克阿瑟与尼米兹就太平洋战争的战略问题发生重大分歧,前者主张先发起以新几内亚一哈尔马赫拉一棉兰老为轴心的战役,进而解放菲律宾;后者主张先夺取棉兰老空军基地,孤立吕宋,再进攻台湾和中国沿海,进而打击日本本土以缩短战争进程。二者分别得到陆军参谋长马歇尔和海军作战部长金的支持。最后,罗斯福表示支持前者。

    菲律宾群岛战役是以麦克阿瑟所部盟军1944年9月的摩罗泰岛和帕劳群岛登陆作战为先导的。10月,盟军以登陆莱特岛开始从棉兰老岛到吕宋岛的跃进,并始终得到美国陆军航空队和美国海军第3舰队的支援。10月20日,麦克阿瑟率部在莱特岛登陆之后,在菲律宾总统的陪同下,在雨中发表了震撼人心的演讲:“菲律宾人民,我回来了!”

    受降于日本

    1944年12月,麦克阿瑟晋升为陆军五星上将。

    麦克阿瑟在《日本无条件投降书》上签字麦克阿瑟在《日本无条件投降书》上签字

    1945年1月,盟军于10日开始在马尼拉以北的仁牙因湾登陆,29日在

    巴丹半岛登陆,夹击日军山下奉文部;2月5日,麦克阿瑟履行其誓言,光复马尼拉;直到3月,盟军才经激战而攻克马尼拉,占领巴丹半岛,收复科雷吉多尔;3月2日,麦克阿瑟.乘坐鱼雷艇象征性地回到科雷吉多尔;山下奉文顽抗至9月才率部投降。4月,受命指挥太平洋地区所有美国陆军部队的作战行动;7月8日,出任朝鲜战争中联合国军总司令;8月12日,被杜鲁门总统任命为驻日盟军总司令,负责对日军事占领和日本的重建工作,被日本人视为太上皇。

    日本无条件降书上麦帅的签名日本无条件降书上麦帅的签名

    1945年8月15日,日本宣布无条件投降,麦克阿瑟则被杜鲁门总统任命为驻日盟军最高司令,负责对日军事占领和日本的重建工作;9月2日,盟国在“密苏里号”军舰举行受降仪式,日本外相重光葵和参谋总长梅津美治郎代表日方签署投降书。麦克阿瑟出场代表盟国签字受降,中美英苏等盟国代表亦先后签字受降;麦克阿瑟在签字受降时,特意安排太平洋战争初期即被

    日军俘虏的美国将军温赖特和英国将军珀西瓦尔站在身后的荣誉位置,很有意思的是,他准备了5支派克金笔用作签字。他用第一支笔签了“道格”两字,送给站在身后的美军中将温赖特;第二支笔接着写了“拉斯”,然后送给英军司令珀西瓦尔;第三支写了“麦克阿瑟”就收起来,送给美国政府档案馆;第四支笔签了职务“盟军最高统帅”,送给美国西点军校;第五支笔签了年月日后,送给爱妻琼妮。

    国军总司令

    指挥仁川登陆指挥仁川登陆

    1950年6月25日,金日成发动了波及朝鲜全境的战争

    ,南朝鲜首府汉城(首尔)在6月28日被攻陷,6月27日,杜鲁门下令美军支援南朝鲜的作战,7月7日联合国安理会通过美国起草的决议,组织联合国军参加朝鲜战争,任命麦克阿瑟为联合国军总司令。战争期间,麦克阿瑟组织策划仁川登陆将朝鲜人民军拦腰切断,战争形势被完全逆转。毛泽东接受金日成的请求,以志愿军的正当名义出兵朝鲜,任命彭德怀为司令员兼政委。

    1950年7月31日,访问台湾,并与蒋介石达成同台美外交关系;9月15日,策划仁川战役,取得决定性胜利;10月15日,由于麦克阿瑟告知白宫自己太忙不能回华盛顿之后,他在威克岛会见美国总统哈利·S·杜鲁门,杜鲁门只让他打一场有限的战争;10月19日,美军攻占平壤,此时第一批中国人民志愿军分三路秘密进入朝鲜进攻联合国军;10月25日至1951年1月8日,经过三次战役,彭德怀率领的中国人民志愿军将麦克阿瑟将军率领的“联合国军”由鸭绿江边击退回三八线附近。

    道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟

    1951年4月11日,麦克阿瑟将军主张对中国在东北的军事目标进行打击

    ,必要时动用核武器;杜鲁门恐此举会导致苏联参战而不同意,麦克阿瑟公开反对杜鲁门的决定,派侦察飞机飞入中国领空。志愿军入朝后的前三次战役,联合国军遭到失败,第四次战役旗鼓相当;麦克阿瑟缺乏统一朝鲜半岛有效手段,在李奇微出任第八集团军司令并开始扭转战局后,麦克阿瑟越来越令美国军政当局不满。1951年4月11日,杜鲁门以“未能全力支持美国和联合国的政策”为借口撤了他的职,由李奇微(Matthew B. Ridgway)接任。

    老兵永不死

    1951年1月28日,麦克阿瑟与李奇微视察战场1951年1月28日,麦克阿瑟与李奇微视察战场

    麦克阿瑟回到美国后,在华盛顿受到了万人空巷的英雄式欢迎。许多大城市都爆发了支持麦克阿瑟,反对杜鲁门的游行示威活动,杜鲁门支持

    率下降到了26%。四个州的议会通过了决议,要求杜鲁门总统收回成命。

    1951年4月19日,在国会会议之前的告别演说中,发表演说—— 《老兵永不死,只是渐凋零》:“我即将结束五十二年的军旅生涯。我从军是在本世纪开始之前,而这是我童年的希望与梦想的实现。自从我在西点军校的教练场上宣誓以来,这个世界已经过多次变化,而我的希望与梦想早已消逝,但我仍记着当时最流行的一首军歌词,极为自豪地宣示‘老兵永不死,只是渐凋零’(Old soldiers never die,they just fade away)。”

    1951年6月25日,美国国会为了表彰他的功绩,破例通过一个决议,批准为他专门制造一枚金质特殊荣誉勋章,这面勋章上面镌刻着他的肖像和以下文字:“澳大利亚的保卫者,菲律宾的解放者,日本的征服者,朝鲜的捍卫者”。

    麦克阿瑟与韩国总统李承晚麦克阿瑟与韩国总统李承晚

    1962年5月2日,82岁高龄的麦克阿瑟回到母校——西点军校,接

    受军校最高奖励——西尔维纳斯·塞耶荣誉勋章。在授勋仪式上,他即兴发表了他一生中最后一次也是最感人的一次演讲《责任—荣誉—国家》:“我的生命已近黄昏,暮色已经降临。我过去的音调和色彩已经消失,它们已经随着往事的梦境模糊地溜走了。往日的回忆是非常美好的,是以泪水洗涤,以昨天的微笑抚慰的。我渴望但徒然地聆听着远处那微弱而迷人的起床号声和那咚咚作响的军鼓声。在梦境里,我又听到隆隆的炮声,噼啪的步枪射击声,战场上古怪而悲伤的低语声。然而,在我黄昏的记忆中,我总是来到西点,耳边始终回响着:责任—荣誉—国家。”

    1964年4月5日,麦克阿瑟在沃尔特·里德陆军医院(美国陆军医疗中心)因胆结石去世,享年84岁。

    主要成就/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    重建日本

    麦克阿瑟出任“联合国军”总司令麦克阿瑟出任“联合国军”总司令

    1945年8月30日,麦克阿瑟向他的幕僚们谈起了他统治日本的设想,归纳为两个要点:第一点:铲除日本文化和行为中对外侵略的因素;第二点:促进民主

    在日本成长。

    麦克阿瑟抵达日本后,下令释放了被日本政府长期关押的包括许多共产党人在内的政治犯,一贯反共的美国人解放了身陷囹圄的共产主义者。1945年10月,这些出狱的共产主义者合法地组建了日本共产党。

    1945年8月25日,美国占领军允许日本妇女建立自己的组织;9月,公布了给予日本妇女选举地位的法案;12月17日,日本妇女历史上第一次获得了选举权。

    1945年10月11日,麦克阿瑟发布公告,解除了对报纸的禁令,日本实现了新闻自由和言论自由。麦克阿瑟在公告中还特别指出:要实现宪政体制自由化,要解放妇女,鼓励成立劳工组织,学校实行更自由的教育,实行经济制度民主化。

    1945年12月22日,颁布了《工会法》,工人阶级真正地拥有了自己的组织。1946年9月27日,颁布《劳动关系调整法》,其中包括禁止企业开除或歧视罢工工人的条款。1947年9月1日,颁布了《劳动基准法》,规定了最低工资标准和最长劳动时间。世界上头号资本主义国家派出的占领者们却真正地从法律上保障劳动者的利益,保障了工人阶级的利益。

    麦克阿瑟与昭和天皇会面麦克阿瑟与昭和天皇会面

    1946年1月1日日本昭和天皇在麦克阿瑟建议下发表自我否认神格的声明,即《人间宣言》,诏书后半部分否定了天皇作为“现代人世间的神”的地位,宣告天皇也是仅具有人性的普通人,从某种意义上减弱了长久以来存在日本国民脑中的忠君思想。

    1946年2月3日,麦克阿瑟指示盟军总部起草日本宪法样本。美国政府早在1945年9月给麦克阿瑟下达的制定宪法的准则是:日本政府必须绝对由全体选民授权并对全体选民负责。5月3日盟军提交了宪法草案。10月7日,日本国会通过了宪法。11月3日,日本颁布新宪法。这是一个由占领者由外国人由敌人由西方人按照西方的价值观按照西方那一套强加给习惯于东方这一套的被占领者的宪法,但却是给被征服民族被占领国家的人民带来了民主自由法治的宪法,带来了和平繁荣昌盛的宪法,带来了幸福的宪法。

    “麦克阿瑟”宪法强调了日本人的基本公民权利,把这些权利视为“天赋而不可剥夺的权利”加以保障。这些权利包括:选举权;集会与出版自由;没有律师的即时介入,任何人都不得被逮捕定罪;保障人民居住安全,禁止无端的搜查与剥夺等。当时,除了日本共产党,所有的日本政党都赞成新宪法。

    1946年10月21日,国会通过《土地改革法案》。日本政府购买了所有外在地主的土地和在乡地主的多余土地,再把土地转卖给没有土地的农民。对没有钱买地的农民,政府给予抵押贷款。一夜之间,不流一滴血,不杀一个人,所有的无地农民都获得了真正属于自己的土地。

    1947 年3月31日,颁布了《教育基本法》。宣布教育的首要目标是“尊重个人尊严,努力培养人们热爱真理与和平。”教育的另一个目标是“建立一个民主、文明的国家,为世界和平与人类福祉作出贡献。”日本的学校不再被政府所控制,而是由公众选举的教育委员会管理。选择教师、课本和设定课程完全由民间自主决定。

    1952年美国占领军当局归政于日本政府。

    亲属成员/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    道格拉斯·麦克拉斯出生于军人家庭,他的父亲阿瑟·麦克阿瑟二世最高曾担任美国陆军三星中将,是启发麦克阿瑟成为军人的人。

    人物关系
    姓名
    父亲
    阿瑟·麦克阿瑟
    母亲
    玛丽·平克妮·哈迪
    妻子
    路易斯·布鲁克斯
    琼·费尔克洛斯
    儿子
    阿瑟·麦克阿瑟三世
    兄弟
    马尔科姆·麦克阿瑟

    人物争议/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    包庇战犯

    麦克阿瑟麦克阿瑟

    日本与德国同是发起法西斯侵略战争的国家,战后德国历届政府都对

    当年希特勒的罪行表示忏悔,并且坚决禁止、取缔新法西斯主义活动。德国政府这种明确立场,使其与当年被侵略的国家得以尽释前嫌,和平相处。而日本则相反,投降后的日本由美国实行单独占领,而不是像德国那样由苏、美、英、法四大盟国分区实行军事占领,盟国管制委员会行使德政府职能,纳粹制度彻底被铲除。对日本败降的处置,主要是由美国政府控制下完成的,实际上是在麦克阿瑟一手垄断下进行的。“冷战”开始后,美国在对日本的占领和管制过程中,采取两面政策,在打击限制的同时,又部分保护日本军国主义势力,为有朝一日日本为美国的附庸工具埋下了“伏笔”。

    远东国际军事法庭对日本战犯的判决,可以说是对日本军国主义侵略战争罪行的最轻微的部分清算,既不完全,又不彻底。1948年12月23日,东条英机等7名甲级日本战犯执行绞刑,荒木贞夫、桥本欣五郎等16名被告,包括天皇的顾问木户幸一被判无期徒刑。被盟国起诉的日本各类战犯约5700余人,被判刑者约4300人,其中920人被处死刑。在狱中的绝大多数日本战犯先后被麦克阿瑟赦免释放了。

    1948年12月24日即对7名甲级战犯执行绞刑的次日,麦克阿瑟总部宣布,释放仍在巢鸭监狱中的岸信介等19名甲级战犯嫌疑犯。1949年1月26日,蒋介石国民党释放了以双手沾满中国人民鲜血的冈村宁次为首的260多名在押战犯,并将他们送回日本。1949年10月19日,又宣布对乙、丙级战犯结束审判,不再逮捕、搜查战犯嫌疑犯。1950年3月7日,悍然颁布“第五号指令”,规定所有根据判决书仍在日本服刑的战犯都可以刑满前按所谓“宣誓释放制度”予以释放,这实际上完全破坏了远东国际军事法庭的判决。不予起诉。1950年11月21日,麦克阿瑟又非法释放判刑已太轻而且刑期未满的重光葵,他不久就当上了外务大臣和副首相,荒木贞夫、田俊六等也被释放,贺屋兴宣甚至重新回到政界。到1958年4月7日,所有日本战犯未服满刑期都最后得到了赦免。从1950年10月到1952年8月,在美国的支持下,吉田茂政府先后为18万左右的军国主义分子解除“整肃”,重返政坛,窃据要职。这些人不仅自己坚持军国主义思想,而且还对日本社会产生了极为消极的影响。岸信介等一大批日本战犯的赦免,并重新走上政坛,为重演过去的历史埋下了祸根。

    经典名言/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    “老兵不死,只是逐渐凋零。”

    原文:Old soldiers never die. They just fade away.

    “我对菲律宾——我从那里过来——的人民说过,我会回来。今夜,我再说一遍那句话:我会回来!”

    原文:I said, to the people of the Philippines whence I came, I shall return. Tonight, I repeat those words: I shall return!

    出处:从菲律宾抵达澳大利亚之后(1942年3月30日)

    “你有信仰就年轻,疑惑就年老。有自信就年轻,畏惧就年老。有希望就年轻,绝望就年老。岁月刻蚀的不过是你的皮肤,但如果失去了热忱,你的灵魂就不再年轻。”

    “人才有用不好用,奴才好用没有用。”

    “若无必胜的信心,则战争必败无疑。”

    “只有不怕死的人才配活着”

    “迎接战争和迎接太阳一样”

    “有绝妙的计划,必须不遗余力地实施,而且今天就做。”

    “历史,不过是伟大人物的传记”

    “我的生命已近黄昏,暮色已经降临。我过去的音调与色彩已经消失,它们已经随着往事的梦境模糊地溜走了。往日的回忆是非常美好的,是以泪水洗涤,以昨天的微笑抚慰的。我渴望但徒然地聆听着远处那微弱而迷人的起床号声,和那咚咚作响的军鼓声。在梦境里,我又听到隆隆的炮声,劈啪的步枪射击声,战场上古怪而悲伤的低语声。然而,在我黄昏的记忆中,我总是来到西点,耳边始终回响着:责任一荣誉一国家。

    今天标志我对你们的最后一次点名。但我希望你们知道,当我死去时,我最后自然想到的一定是你们这支部队——这支部队——这支部队。

    我向你们告别了。”

    “石头是坚硬的 但比它更坚硬的是人的高与意志 它受到理想的指引 它能征服和铸造最坚硬的顽石”

    “如果给我一百万再去当一次兵我绝不愿意,如果给我一百万要跟我买当兵的回忆我也不愿意 。”

    着装特色/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    1、玉米芯烟斗

    2、雷朋黑色墨镜

    3、卡其布素色军装

    4、卡里玛军用皮靴/拉菲尔皮鞋

    演讲原文/道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 编辑

    国会告别

    General Douglas MacArthur

    Farewell Address to Congress

    麦克阿瑟将军:向国会告别演说

    delivered 19 April 1951

    1951年4月19日

    Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, and Distinguished Members of the Congress:

    主席先生,议长先生和尊敬的国会议员:

    I stand on this rostrum with a sense of deep humility and great pride -- humility in the wake of those great American architects of our history who have stood here before me; pride in the reflection that this forum of legislative debate represents human liberty in the purest form yet devised. Here are centered the hopes and aspirations and faith of the entire human race. I do not stand here as advocate for any partisan cause, for the issues are fundamental and reach quite beyond the realm of partisan consideration. They must be resolved on the highest plane of national interest if our course is to prove sound and our future protected. I trust, therefore, that you will do me the justice of receiving that which I have to say as solely expressing the considered viewpoint of a fellow American.

    我站在主席台前,感到深深的惶恐和无比的骄傲。惶恐的是在我之前已经有很多美国历史的伟大建筑师们站到了这里给我的压力;骄傲的是这个立法辩论的圣地代表的人类创造的最纯的自由的彰显。整个人类的信仰、热望和希望都汇集于此。我不想作为任何党派事业的倡导站在这里,因为这些问题举足轻重、意义深远非政党考虑所能涵盖。如果我们的事业要保持健全,我们的未来要有保证,那么这些问题必须在国家利益的高度解决。因此,我希望你们能公正地接受我作为一个美国公民提出的肺腑之言。

    I address you with neither rancor nor bitterness in the fading twilight of life, with but one purpose in mind: to serve my country. The issues are global and so interlocked that to consider the problems of one sector, oblivious to those of another, is but to court disaster for the whole. While Asia is commonly referred to as the Gateway to Europe, it is no less true that Europe is the Gateway to Asia, and the broad influence of the one cannot fail to have its impact upon the other. There are those who claim our strength is inadequate to protect on both fronts, that we cannot divide our effort. I can think of no greater expression of defeatism. If a potential enemy can divide his strength on two fronts, it is for us to counter his effort. The Communist threat is a global one. Its successful advance in one sector threatens the destruction of every other sector. You can not appease or otherwise surrender to communism in Asia without simultaneously undermining our efforts to halt its advance in Europe.

    我的讲话里既没有因烈士暮年而充满积怨,也没有尖酸刻薄,有的是一颗赤胆忠心:报效国家。这些问题是全球性的,如此错综复杂,以至于考虑一个领域的各种问题,明显地对其它领域的问题,是不折不扣的引火烧身。当亚洲被公认为欧洲的门口时,欧洲同样被认为是亚洲的门口,对一方的广泛影响,不可能不是对另一方的影响。一些人声称我们的实力不足以应对两条战线,我们要反击这种观点。共产主义的威胁是全球性的。它在一个领域的成功有摧毁其它任何领域的威胁。你无法在亚洲讨好或投降共产主义而不动摇在欧洲阻止共产主义的努力。

    Beyond pointing out these general truisms, I shall confine my discussion to the general areas of Asia. Before one may objectively assess the situation now existing there, he must comprehend something of Asia's past and the revolutionary changes which have marked her course up to the present. Long exploited by the so-called colonial powers, with little opportunity to achieve any degree of social justice, individual dignity, or a higher standard of life such as guided our own noble administration in the Philippines, the peoples of Asia found their opportunity in the war just past to throw off the shackles of colonialism and now see the dawn of new opportunity, a heretofore unfelt dignity, and the self-respect of political freedom.

    菲律宾战场的麦克阿瑟菲律宾战场的麦克阿瑟

    除了指出这些不言自明的事,我想把讨论局限于亚洲。任何人在有意研究那里目前的局面之前,他应该深刻了解亚洲的过去和她走向当今的进程在里程碑式的革命性变革。长期受到所谓的殖民主义国家的剥削,几乎没有获得任何程度的社会公正和个人尊严或高生活水平的机会,这些是我们在菲律宾的高尚管理的指南,亚洲各国人民发现他们打破殖民主义桎楛的机会在战争中失去,他们看到了新机会的曙光,迄今还没有感觉到的尊严和政治自由的自尊。

    Mustering half of the earth's population, and 60 percent of its natural resources these peoples are rapidly consolidating a new force, both moral and material, with which to raise the living standard and erect adaptations of the design of modern progress to their own distinct cultural environments. Whether one adheres to the concept of colonization or not, this is the direction of Asian progress and it may not be stopped. It is a corollary to the shift of the world economic frontiers as the whole epicenter of world affairs rotates back toward the area whence it started.

    拥有世界一半的人口和60%的自然资源,这些人们正在快速的形成道义和自然意义上的新势力,他们用这个力量提高生活水平和把现代进步的理念融入他们的独特的文化环境。不管谁固守殖民主义的思潮与否,这是亚洲进步的方向,任何人都无法阻挡。这是世界经济前沿转变的必然结果。当今国际事务的中心就是世界经济的前沿又一次回到它的出发点。

    In this situation, it becomes vital that our own country orient its policies in consonance with this basic evolutionary condition rather than pursue a course blind to the reality that the colonial era is now past and the Asian peoples covet the right to shape their own free destiny. What they seek now is friendly guidance, understanding, and support -- not imperious direction -- the dignity of equality and not the shame of subjugation. Their pre-war standard of life, pitifully low, is infinitely lower now in the devastation left in war's wake. World ideologies play little part in Asian thinking and are little understood. What the peoples strive for is the opportunity for a little more food in their stomachs, a little better clothing on their backs, a little firmer roof over their heads, and the realization of the normal nationalist urge for political freedom. These political-social conditions have but an indirect bearing upon our own national security, but do form a backdrop to contemporary planning which must be thoughtfully considered if we are to avoid the pitfalls of unrealism.

    在这种情况下,使我们国家的政策与这种基本的演变形势相一致而不是对殖民地现在已经成为过去,亚洲各个民族都在追求打造自己的自主命运的权力这个事实视而不见。他们现在追求的是友好的指导、理解和帮助—而不是飞扬跋扈的命令—平等的尊严而不是征服的耻辱。他们在战前的生活标准十分悲惨,现在在战争留下的废墟中更加雪上加霜。国际意识形态在亚洲人的思维里几乎不起作用,而且也不被理解。各个民族追求的只不过是肚子里多一点点食物的几乎,身上穿着好一点的衣服,头顶上更加坚固的屋顶以及普通民族主义者的政治自由的愿望可以实现。这些政治的-社会的形势只不过间接地影响我国的安全,但是如果我们要躲过非现实主义的陷阱,我们就不得不认真考虑他们构成的当前计划的背景。

    Of more direct and immediate bearing upon our national security are the changes wrought in the strategic potential of the Pacific Ocean in the course of the past war. Prior thereto the western strategic frontier of the United States lay on the littoral line of the Americas, with an exposed island salient extending out through Hawaii, Midway, and Guam to the Philippines. That salient proved not an outpost of strength but an avenue of weakness along which the enemy could and did attack.

    直接和当下就影响我们的国家安全的是形成战后太平洋战略潜力的各种变化。美国的西部战略前沿位于美洲的多边边界,和在此之外延伸到夏威夷、中途岛、关岛直到菲律宾群岛的一个岛链。事实证明这个突出的岛链不是坚固的前哨,而是敌人能够也曾经沿着此攻击的防守薄弱的通道。

    The Pacific was a potential area of advance for any predatory force intent upon striking at the bordering land areas. All this was changed by our Pacific victory. Our strategic frontier then shifted to embrace the entire Pacific Ocean, which became a vast moat to protect us as long as we held it. Indeed, it acts as a protective shield for all of the Americas and all free lands of the Pacific Ocean area. We control it to the shores of Asia by a chain of islands extending in an arc from the Aleutians to the Mariannas held by us and our free allies. From this island chain we can dominate with sea and air power every Asiatic port from Vladivostok to Singapore -- with sea and air power every port, as I said, from Vladivostok to Singapore -- and prevent any hostile movement into the Pacific.

    太平洋曾经是企图攻击沿岸国家的侵略成性的国家的必争之地。我们在太平洋的胜利改变了一切。我们的战略前沿也从此转移的了整个太平洋,只要我们控制了太平洋,它就成了我们的无边的护城河。的确,它起着所有美洲国家和太平洋沿岸自由国家防卫之盾的作用。我们与我们的自由世界盟友通过一个从阿留申群岛到马里亚纳群岛的岛链控制着直到太平洋与亚洲海岸相接的广漠水域。由这个岛链我们通过海、空军遏制着从海参崴到新加坡的所有港口—如我所说,每个港口—从海参崴到新加坡—防止任何敌对势力进入太平洋。

    *Any predatory attack from Asia must be an amphibious effort.* No amphibious force can be successful without control of the sea lanes and the air over those lanes in its avenue of advance. With naval and air supremacy and modest ground elements to defend bases, any major attack from continental Asia toward us or our friends in the Pacific would be doomed to failure.

    任何来自亚洲的侵略性攻击只能是两栖作战。没有任何两栖作战能够在没有进攻路线上的制海权和制空权的前提下成功。我们有海、空军的绝对优势和足够的地面作战力量保卫所有基地,任何来自亚洲大陆的对我们或我们的盟友的重点进攻都将以失败告终。

    Under such conditions, the Pacific no longer represents menacing avenues of approach for a prospective invader. It assumes, instead, the friendly aspect of a peaceful lake. Our line of defense is a natural one and can be maintained with a minimum of military effort and expense. It envisions no attack against anyone, nor does it provide the bastions essential for offensive operations, but properly maintained, would be an invincible defense against aggression. The holding of this littoral defense line in the western Pacific is entirely dependent upon holding all segments thereof; for any major breach of that line by an unfriendly power would render vulnerable to determined attack every other major segment.

    在这样的条件下,太平洋不再是未来的敌人进攻我们的危险的通衢。恰恰相反,成了充满友谊的内湖。有了这个天然的防线我们的军事努力和开支就可以降到最低水平。这里没有针对任何一方的进攻,也不会为任何进攻行动提供必需的堡垒,有的是适度维系的抵御任何进攻的固若金汤的防线。掌握这个西太平洋的多边防线完全取决于掌握各个防线;因为任何一段防线被一个不友好的势力突破将使任何其它主要防线受到攻击的危险。

    This is a military estimate as to which I have yet to find a military leader who will take exception. For that reason, I have strongly recommended in the past, as a matter of military urgency, that under no circumstances must Formosa fall under Communist control. Such an eventuality would at once threaten the freedom of the Philippines and the loss of Japan and might well force our western frontier back to the coast of California, Oregon and Washington.

    这个军事评估我一直在等待一个军事领导人提出异议。因此我过去极力强调一个特急军事情况,就是无论如何情况下,台湾都不能落入共产党人的手里。这个不测事件一旦发生将立刻威胁到菲律宾的自由和日本的丧失,并且可能迫使我们把西部防线撤退到加利福尼亚州、俄勒冈州和华盛顿州海岸。

    To understand the changes which now appear upon the Chinese mainland, one must understand the changes in Chinese character and culture over the past 50 years. China, up to 50 years ago, was completely non-homogenous, being compartmented into groups divided against each other. The war-making tendency was almost non-existent, as they still followed the tenets of the Confucian ideal of pacifist culture. At the turn of the century, under the regime of Chang Tso Lin, efforts toward greater homogeneity produced the start of a nationalist urge. This was further and more successfully developed under the leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek, but has been brought to its greatest fruition under the present regime to the point that it has now taken on the character of a united nationalism of increasingly dominant, aggressive tendencies.

    为了理解中国大陆现在发生的巨变,你必须理解在过去的五十年里中国人的秉性和文化发生的巨变。中国,直到五十年前,还是彻头彻尾的一盘散沙,被互相争斗的军阀们各自割据。对外发动战争的倾向几乎没有,因为他们仍然信奉孔夫子的“和为贵”教义。在世纪之交,在张作霖的统治下,进一步统一国家的运动促成了民族主义者的壮大。在蒋介石的领导下这种统一取得了巨大的成功,导致的最大的后果就是在当今的政府领导下演变成了一种颇具统治和侵略倾向的民族主义秉性。

    Through these past 50 years the Chinese people have thus become militarized in their concepts and in their ideals. They now constitute excellent soldiers, with competent staffs and commanders. This has produced a new and dominant power in Asia, which, for its own purposes, is allied with Soviet Russia but which in its own concepts and methods has become aggressively imperialistic, with a lust for expansion and increased power normal to this type of imperialism.

    在过去的五十年里,中国人民的观念和理想都军事化了。他们现在组成了拥有出色的指挥和参谋人员和最精锐的士兵的军队。这创造了亚洲的新的统治性的大国,它为了自己的利益与苏联结盟但坚持他们自己的观念和方法,已经成了侵略性的帝国。它的强军扩张的野心符合这类帝国主义。

    There is little of the ideological concept either one way or another in the Chinese make-up. The standard of living is so low and the capital accumulation has been so thoroughly dissipated by war that the masses are desperate and eager to follow any leadership which seems to promise the alleviation of local stringencies.

    无论这样还是那样看,在中国人的秉性里几乎没有任何意识形态观念。他们的生活水平极低,资本积累在战争中灰飞烟灭,广大民众因此奋不顾身地追随任何可能把他们解救出当地桎酷的领导。

    I have from the beginning believed that the Chinese Communists' support of the North Koreans was the dominant one. Their interests are, at present, parallel with those of the Soviet. But I believe that the aggressiveness recently displayed not only in Korea but also in Indo-China and Tibet and pointing potentially toward the South reflects predominantly the same lust for the expansion of power which has animated every would-be conqueror since the beginning of time.

    我从开始就认为中国共产党人对北朝鲜的支持是占优的。他们在北朝鲜的利益在今天不亚于苏联。但是我认为他们最近显示的侵略性不仅在朝鲜而且还在印度支那和西藏,潜在的锋芒直指能南方,强力彰显了有史以来任何可能的征服者都具有的扩张国力的野心。

    The Japanese people, since the war, have undergone the greatest reformation recorded in modern history. With a commendable will, eagerness to learn, and marked capacity to understand, they have, from the ashes left in war's wake, erected in Japan an edifice dedicated to the supremacy of individual liberty and personal dignity; and in the ensuing process there has been created a truly representative government committed to the advance of political morality, freedom of economic enterprise, and social justice.

    麦克阿瑟签署日本受降书麦克阿瑟签署日本受降书

    日本人民,自战争时起,一直开展历史上最伟大的改革。他们有令人啧啧称赞的学习的意志和热望,出色的理解力,在战争的废墟上,建立了一个给国民最大个体自由和人身尊严的大厦;随后他们有建立了真正的人民代表组成的政府,致力于政治道德的进步、经济实体的自由和社会的公平。

    Politically, economically, and socially Japan is now abreast of many free nations of the earth and will not again fail the universal trust. That it may be counted upon to wield a profoundly beneficial influence over the course of events in Asia is attested by the magnificent manner in which the Japanese people have met the recent challenge of war, unrest, and confusion surrounding them from the outside and checked communism within their own frontiers without the slightest slackening in their forward progress. I sent all four of our occupation divisions to the Korean battlefront without the slightest qualms as to the effect of the resulting power vacuum upon Japan. The results fully justified my faith. I know of no nation more serene, orderly, and industrious, nor in which higher hopes can be entertained for future constructive service in the advance of the human race.

    在政治、经济和社会上日本已经可以和地球上的很多自由国家比肩了,不会再次辜负国际社会的信任了。或许寄希望于日本在亚洲的事务中发挥深远的有益影响已经被日本人民在应对最近的战争、动乱和纠缠他们的来自外部和内部被控制的共产主义的困惑的挑战中没有丝毫放缓进步的步伐的惊人表现所证明了。我把我们的四个占领师全部投入韩国前线没有一点对造成日本军力真空的影响的担忧。这些结果完全证实了我的信念。我知道没有任何国家比日本更加沉着、守序和勤奋,也没有哪个国家能在人类的进步中怀有更高的未来建设性的服务的希望。

    Of our former ward, the Philippines, we can look forward in confidence that the existing unrest will be corrected and a strong and healthy nation will grow in the longer aftermath of war's terrible destructiveness. We must be patient and understanding and never fail them -- as in our hour of need, they did not fail us. A Christian nation, the Philippines stand as a mighty bulwark of Christianity in the Far East, and its capacity for high moral leadership in Asia is unlimited.

    关于我们的庇护国菲律宾,我们满怀信心地期待当前的动荡得到平息,一个强大健康的国家摆脱战争的严重破坏的后续影响,发展起来。我们一定要耐心、理解而且永远不能辜负他们—如同在我们需要的时候,他们没有辜负我们一样。作为一个基督国家,菲律宾是一个基督精神在远东的坚强堡垒,它在亚洲的崇高道德领导能力不可限量。

    On Formosa, the government of the Republic of China has had the opportunity to refute by action much of the malicious gossip which so undermined the strength of its leadership on the Chinese mainland. The Formosan people are receiving a just and enlightened administration with majority representation on the organs of government, and politically, economically, and socially they appear to be advancing along sound and constructive lines.

    在台湾,中华民国政府曾经有机会用行动驳斥大多数恶意的舆论,这些舆论侵蚀了国民党在中国大陆的领导力量。台湾人民将接受一个公正的开明的政府,这个政府具备政府的大多数功能,在政治、经济和社会上正在沿着健全和建设性的路线前进。

    With this brief insight into the surrounding areas, I now turn to the Korean conflict. While I was not consulted prior to the President's decision to intervene in support of the Republic of Korea, that decision from a military standpoint, proved a sound one, as we -- as I said, proved a sound one, as we hurled back the invader and decimated his forces. Our victory was complete, and our objectives within reach, when Red China intervened with numerically superior ground forces.

    带着这个对周边地区的简要洞悉,我现在转到韩战。虽然总统做出旨在支持大韩民国的军事干预的决定并没有与我商量,从军事观点来看,这个决定是正确的,因为我们击退了入侵者,大量杀伤了他的部队。当红色中国以绝对优势的地面部队干预时,我们的胜利是彻底的,我们的目标已经达到。

    This created a new war and an entirely new situation, a situation not contemplated when our forces were committed against the North Korean invaders; a situation which called for new decisions in the diplomatic sphere to permit the realistic adjustment of military strategy.

    Such decisions have not been forthcoming.

    这创造了一场全新的战争和彻头彻尾的新形势,一个我们的军队投身于抵御北韩侵略者时没有预料到的形势;一个在外交领域做出想决策以便赢得时间做出现实的军事战略调整的形势。

    这样的决策始终没有做出。

    While no man in his right mind would advocate sending our ground forces into continental China, and such was never given a thought, the new situation did urgently demand a drastic revision of strategic planning if our political aim was to defeat this new enemy as we had defeated the old.

    虽然没有一个头脑冷静的人会提出派我们的地面部队入侵中国大陆,甚至一点这样的念头都没有,但是如果我们的政治目的是如同我们过去击败老对手一样击败这个新敌人,新形势的确迫切地需要果断的战略规划修改。

    麦克阿瑟与日本裕仁天皇麦克阿瑟与日本裕仁天皇

    Apart from the military need, as I saw It, to neutralize the sanctuary protection given the enemy north of the Yalu, I felt that military necessity in the conduct of the war made necessary: first the intensification of our economic blockade against China; two the imposition of a naval blockade against the China coast; three removal of restrictions on air reconnaissance of China's coastal areas and of Manchuria; four removal of restrictions on the forces of the Republic of China on Formosa, with logistical support to contribute to their effective operations against the common enemy.

    For entertaining these views, all professionally designed to support our forces committed to Korea and bring hostilities to an end with the least possible delay and at a saving of countless American and allied lives, I have been severely criticized in lay circles, principally abroad, despite my understanding that from a military standpoint the above views have been fully shared in the past by practically every military leader concerned with the Korean campaign, including our own Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    在我看来,除了把鸭绿江以北的敌人的避难所中立化的军事需要,我觉得指挥一场战争的紧迫性必须:首先强化对中国的经济封锁;其次,部署海军对中国海岸进行封锁;第三,撤销对中国沿海地区和满洲里地区的空中侦察的限制;第四,撤销对在台湾的中华民国军队的限制,这只军队及其后勤支援可以有效地投入打击我们共同的敌人的军事行动。

    I called for reinforcements but was informed that reinforcements were not available. I made clear that if not permitted to destroy the enemy built-up bases north of the Yalu, if not permitted to utilize the friendly Chinese Force of some 600,000 men on Formosa, if not permitted to blockade the China coast to prevent the Chinese Reds from getting succor from without, and if there were to be no hope of major reinforcements, the position of the command from the military standpoint forbade victory.

    我要求增援,都是得到的回答是无法增援。我阐明了如果不允许摧毁敌人在鸭绿江北的基地,如果不允许利用台湾的 600,000中国友军,不允许封锁中国的海岸防止红色中国得到他们没有的援助,如果主要的增援遥遥无期,从军事角度看,盟军司令部的地位就会封杀了胜利。

    We could hold in Korea by constant maneuver and in an approximate area where our supply line advantages were in balance with the supply line disadvantages of the enemy, but we could hope at best for only an indecisive campaign with its terrible and constant attrition upon our forces if the enemy utilized its full military potential. I have constantly called for the new political decisions essential to a solution.

    我可以通过持续的军事行动在我们的优势补给线与敌人的劣势补给线持平的地区附近控制韩国,但是我们可能最多只能取得一些微不足道的胜利,而一旦敌人倾注全力我们的部队就会卷入可怕的持久的消耗战。我一直在谋求彻底解决的政治决定。

    Efforts have been made to distort my position. It has been said, in effect, that I was a warmonger. Nothing could be further from the truth. I know war as few other men now living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting. I have long advocated its complete abolition, as its very destructiveness on both friend and foe has rendered it useless as a means of settling international disputes. Indeed, on the second day of September, nineteen hundred and forty-five, just following the surrender of the Japanese nation on the Battleship Missouri, I formally cautioned as follows:

    很多人不遗余力的诋毁我的立场。他们说事实上我是一个战争贩子。事实胜于雄辩。几乎没有活着的人对战争的理解能达到我对战争的理解程度,我最痛恨的就是战争。我长期以来致力于彻底消除战争,因为只要诉诸战争,无论敌我双方都会遭到毁灭性打击,使它对解决国际争端毫无作用。的确,在一九四五年九月二日,日本国在密苏里号战舰上的投降仪式刚刚结束,我就正式提出下列忠告:

    Men since the beginning of time have sought peace. Various methods through the ages have been attempted to devise an international process to prevent or settle disputes between nations. From the very start workable methods were found in so far as individual citizens were concerned, but the mechanics of an instrumentality of larger international scope have never been successful. Military alliances, balances of power, Leagues of Nations, all in turn failed, leaving the only path to be by way of the crucible of war. The utter destructiveness of war now blocks out this alternative. We have had our last chance. If we will not devise some greater and more equitable system, Armageddon will be at our door. The problem basically is theological and involves a spiritual recrudescence and improvement of human character that will synchronize with our almost matchless advances in science, art, literature, and all material and cultural developments of the past 2000 years. It must be of the spirit if we are to save the flesh.

    自从盘古开天地,人类一直在追寻和平。多少个世纪以来,人们尝试了无数的方法构建一个国际程序防止和解决国与国之间的争端。从一开始人们就找到了可行的解决人与人之间关系的方法,但是借助国际范围的解决机制从来没有成功的。军事结盟,力量制衡,国家联盟相继失败,留下的唯一方法就是战争的考验。战争的极大破坏性勾勒了这个替代方法。我们还有最后一次机会。如果我们不能构建一些更加有力更加平等的系统,世界末日大决战必将到来。这个问题从根本上讲是神学性质的涉及精神和人类品性的改进,这个改进是与我们在科学、艺术、文学的近乎无与伦比的进步和过去2,000年来所有物质的和文化的进化同步的。如果我们要拯救血肉之躯,就必须具备这种精神。

    But once war is forced upon us, there is no other alternative than to apply every available means to bring it to a swift end.

    War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision.

    In war there is no substitute for victory.

    但是一旦战争强加到我们的头上,除了用一切手段尽快结束它别无选择。

    战争的最高目标是夺取胜利,不是举棋不定。

    在战争中除了取胜别无选择。

    There are some who, for varying reasons, would appease Red China. They are blind to history's clear lesson, for history teaches with unmistakable emphasis that appeasement but begets new and bloodier war. It points to no single instance where this end has justified that means, where appeasement has led to more than a sham peace. Like blackmail, it lays the basis for new and successively greater demands until, as in blackmail, violence becomes the only other alternative.

    一些人出于各种原因姑息红色中国。他们对清晰的历史教训视而不见,因为历史毋庸置疑地强调姑息绥靖只能是导致新的流血战争。历史上没有一个例子证明为了这个目的可以不择手段,所有的例子都是姑息绥靖导致的屈辱的和平。和敲诈勒索一样,它滋生新的欲壑难填的要求,如同敲诈勒索一样,直到动用唯一的另外选择—暴力。

    "Why," my soldiers asked of me, "surrender military advantages to an enemy in the field?" I could not answer.

    Some may say: to avoid spread of the conflict into an all-out war with China; others, to avoid Soviet intervention. Neither explanation seems valid, for China is already engaging with the maximum power it can commit, and the Soviet will not necessarily mesh its actions with our moves. Like a cobra, any new enemy will more likely strike whenever it feels that the relativity in military or other potential is in its favor on a world-wide basis.

    我的一个士兵问我:“为什么要把战场上的军事优势拱手让给一个敌人?”我无言以对。

    有些人可能说:避免把冲突扩大为与中国的全面战争;另一些可能说避免苏联干预。没有一个解释成立,因为中国已经投入了他们的全部军力,苏联没必要和我们直接冲突。就像一条眼镜蛇,任何新的敌人极有可能在他认为他们在世界范围内有军事或其它潜在的优势时发动战争。

    The tragedy of Korea is further heightened by the fact that its military action is confined to its territorial limits. It condemns that nation, which it is our purpose to save, to suffer the devastating impact of full naval and air b ombardment while the enemy's sanctuaries are fully protected from such attack and devastation.

    把军事行动限制在韩国领土进一步加剧了韩国的悲剧。全面的海空狂轰滥炸的摧枯拉朽的破坏力捣毁了我们要保护的国家,而我们的敌人的栖身之地却安然无恙。

    Of the nations of the world, Korea alone, up to now, is the sole one which has risked its all against communism. The magnificence of the courage and fortitude of the Korean people defies description.

    在全世界所有的国家中,迄今为止只有韩国倾其举国之力抵御共产主义。韩国人民的勇气和坚毅是语言难以描述的。

    They have chosen to risk death rather than slavery. Their last words to me were: "Don't scuttle the Pacific!"

    他们选择了死亡而不是当奴隶。他们给我的最后一句话是:“不要放弃太平洋!”

    I have just left your fighting sons in Korea. They have met all tests there, and I can report to you without reservation that they are splendid in every way.

    我把你们英勇善战的儿女们留住了韩国。他们在那里接受了所有的考验,我可以毫无保留地告诉你们,他们在任何方面都表现得灿烂辉煌。

    It was my constant effort to preserve them and end this savage conflict honorably and with the least loss of time and a minimum sacrifice of life. Its growing bloodshed has caused me the deepest anguish and anxiety.

    Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always.

    我一直致力于保护他们,以最短的时间和最小的牺牲来体面地结束这场残酷的冲突。日益增长的流血牺牲令我痛苦不堪、寝食难安。

    这些仗义豪爽的优秀儿女们时常萦绕在我的心头,我永远为他们祈祷。

    I am closing my 52 years of military service. When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all of my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away."

    麦克阿瑟的荣誉勋章麦克阿瑟的荣誉勋章

    我52年的军旅生涯即将结束。当我从军时,还没有到世纪之交,它是我全部儿时的梦想和希望的实现。自从我在西点军校的操场上庄严宣誓以来,世界已经发生了翻天复地的变化,这些希望和梦想早已灰飞烟灭了,但是我仍然记得那时一首最流行的军营歌谣的副歌:“老兵永远不死;他们仅仅是悄然隐去了。”

    And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.

    Good Bye.

    正如那首歌谣中的老兵,我现在结束我的军旅生涯并且淡出,因为上帝还给他光芒让他看见天职,这个老兵就试图履行了他的天职。

    再见。

    西点演讲

    General Douglas MacArthur 道格拉斯 麦克阿瑟

    "Duty, Honor, Country" 责任、荣誉、国家

    As I was leaving the hotel this morning, a doorman asked me, "Where are you bound for, General?" And when I replied, "West Point," he remarked, "Beautiful place. Have you ever been there before?"

    今天早晨我正要走出旅店大门时,看门人问我:“将军,你打算去哪儿?”当我说,“西点”时,他感慨道,“好地方。以前去过那儿吗?”

    No human being could fail to be deeply moved by such a tribute as this [Thayer Award]. Coming from a profession I have served so long, and a people I have loved so well, it fills me with an emotion I cannot express. But this award is not intended primarily to honor a personality, but to symbolize a great moral code -- the code of conduct and chivalry of those who guard this beloved land of culture and ancient descent. That is the animation of this medallion. For all eyes and for all time, it is an expression of the ethics of the American soldier. That I should be integrated in this way with so noble an ideal arouses a sense of pride and yet of humility which will be with me always: Duty, Honor, Country.

    没有人能获得这样的嘉奖[塞万努斯·塞耶尔奖]而不心潮澎湃。这个大奖来自我为之奋斗如此之久的职业,来自我热爱如此之深的人民,我心中涌起一种难以表达的深情。但是这个大奖主要目的不是嘉奖个人,而是代表一种伟大的道德规范――一种保卫这片我们深爱的文明和先人留下的国土的人们的操行和骑士精神的规范。这正是这个奖章的活力所在。在任何时间和在所有人的眼里,它是军人伦理的诠释。这我要用这种方式融入一个如此高尚的理想唤起的将伴随我一生骄傲感和谦虚感:天职、荣誉、国家。

    Those three hallowed words reverently dictate what you ought to be, what you can be, what you will be. They are your rallying points: to build courage when courage seems to fail; to regain faith when there seems to be little cause for faith; to create hope when hope becomes forlorn.

    这三个神圣的字眼潜移默化地决定你会成为、你能成为、你将成为什么人。它们是你重振的支点:当你勇气衰竭时重塑你的勇气;当你信仰缺失时让你重拾信仰;当你希望破灭时让你重获希望。

    Unhappily, I possess neither that eloquence of diction, that poetry of imagination, nor that brilliance of metaphor to tell you all that they mean. The unbelievers will say they are but words, but a slogan, but a flamboyant phrase. Every pedant, every demagogue, every cynic, every hypocrite, every troublemaker, and I am sorry to say, some others of an entirely different character, will try to downgrade them even to the extent of mockery and ridicule.

    不幸的是,我没有诗人的想象力,即没有驾驭词藻的口才,也不会用华丽的暗喻来让你们理解它们的含义。对此不屑一顾的人会说那不过是词藻、口号、华丽的词组。那些空谈家、蛊惑人心者、玩世不恭者、伪君子、麻烦制造者,我很抱歉这样说,那些异质性格者,会竭力贬低它们,甚至到了挖苦和嘲弄的程度。

    But these are some of the things they do. They build your basic character. They mold you for your future roles as the custodians of the nation's defense. They make you strong enough to know when you are weak, and brave enough to face yourself when you are afraid. They teach you to be proud and unbending in honest failure, but humble and gentle in success; not to substitute words for actions, not to seek the path of comfort, but to face the stress and spur of difficulty and challenge; to learn to stand up in the storm but to have compassion on those who fall; to master yourself before you seek to master others; to have a heart that is clean, a goal that is high; to learn to laugh, yet never forget how to weep; to reach into the future yet never neglect the past; to be serious yet never to take yourself too seriously; to be modest so that you will remember the simplicity of true greatness, the open mind of true wisdom, the meekness of true strength. They give you a temper of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions, a freshness of the deep springs of life, a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of an appetite for adventure over love of ease. They create in your heart the sense of wonder, the unfailing hope of what next, and the joy and inspiration of life. They teach you in this way to be an officer and a gentleman.

    但是它们的确可以发挥这些作用。它们可以塑造你的基本秉性。它们打造你成为未来国家安全的看门人。当你软弱时它们让你足够坚强来认知真相,当你胆怯时它们让你足够勇敢来面对自己。它们教你在正派的失败中保持高傲和不屈,但在胜利时保持谦虚和淡定;不要用空谈代替行动,不要寻求安逸,而要面对困难和挑战的压力和鞭策;要学会经风雨见世面,而不要同情倒下的懦夫;主导别人之前要主导自己;要有一颗纯洁的心,崇高的目标;要学会笑,但不要忘了如何哭泣;要展望未来又不忘过去;要认真但不要对自己太在乎;要虚心以便你能牢记真正伟大的简单,对真智慧海纳百川,对不可抗拒的力量要敬畏。它们让你的意志百炼成钢,让你的感情活力四射,让你的生命之泉永远清新,让你以精神勇气赶走内心的胆怯,让你热衷冒险不图安逸。它们让你心中充满惊奇,期待着下一个,以及生命的快乐和激励。

    And what sort of soldiers are those you are to lead? Are they reliable? Are they brave? Are they capable of victory? Their story is known to all of you. It is the story of the American man-at-arms. My estimate of him was formed on the battlefield many, many years ago, and has never changed. I regarded him then as I regard him now -- as one of the world's noblest figures, not only as one of the finest military characters, but also as one of the most stainless. His name and fame are the birthright of every American citizen. In his youth and strength, his love and loyalty, he gave all that mortality can give.

    你率领的是一群什么样的士兵?他们可靠吗?他们勇敢吗?他们能战无不胜吗?他们的事迹你们都知道了。这是美国军人的事迹。我对他的评价是很久很久以前在战场上形成的,至今未变。从那时起我就把他视为――如同现在一样――世界上最高尚的人物之一,不仅是最优秀的军事人物之一,而且是最圣洁的人物。他的名字和名誉

    He needs no eulogy from me or from any other man. He has written his own history and written it in red on his enemy's breast. But when I think of his patience under adversity, of his courage under fire, and of his modesty in victory, I am filled with an emotion of admiration I cannot put into words. He belongs to history as furnishing one of the greatest examples of successful patriotism. He belongs to posterity as the instructor of future generations in the principles of liberty and freedom. He belongs to the present, to us, by his virtues and by his achievements. In 20 campaigns, on a hundred battlefields, around a thousand campfires, I have witnessed that enduring fortitude, that patriotic self-abnegation, and that invincible determination which have carved his statue in the hearts of his people. From one end of the world to the other he has drained deep the chalice of courage.

    他不需要我的赞美或其他人的赞美。他书写了自己的历史并且是用敌人的鲜血写在敌人的胸前。但是当我想起他在逆境中的耐心,在战火中的勇气,在胜利中的谦逊,我心里就充满难以名状的崇敬。他属于用成功的爱国主义的伟大榜样充满人的心灵的历史。他属于作为下一代人的自由理念的教育者的传承人。他以美德和成就属于当代,属于我们。在二十次战役中,在一百次战斗中,在一千堆篝火旁,我见证了那种永恒的坚毅,那种爱国自律,以及那种战无不胜的决心,这些铸就了他在人民心中的辉煌。从地球的一端到另一端,他释放了圣杯中的全部勇气。

    As I listened to those songs [of the glee club], in memory's eye I could see those staggering columns of the First World War, bending under soggy packs, on many a weary march from dripping dusk to drizzling dawn, slogging ankle-deep through the mire of shell-shocked roads, to form grimly for the attack, blue-lipped, covered with sludge and mud, chilled by the wind and rain, driving home to their objective, and for many, to the judgment seat of God.

    每当我听到这些(GLEE俱乐部的)歌曲时,我的脑海里就会浮现出一战期间那些交错的战斗序列,他们背负潮湿的背囊,在尘土飞扬的黄昏和细雨蒙蒙的黎明,在各个艰难行进的队伍中,在弹坑累累的路上踏着齐踝深的淤泥艰难行进,他们保持严密的战斗队形,冻得嘴唇青紫,披着泥浆,在凄风冷雨中前进,奔向他们的目标,为了多数人,奔向上帝的评判席。

    I do not know the dignity of their birth, but I do know the glory of their death.

    我不知道他们生得是否高贵,但我深知他们死得荣光!

    They died unquestioning, uncomplaining, with faith in their hearts, and on their lips the hope that we would go on to victory.

    他们没有抱怨、没有要求地牺牲了,心里充满信仰,高呼争取胜利的希望。

    Always, for them: Duty, Honor, Country; always their blood and sweat and tears, as we sought the way and the light and the truth.

    对他们,永远都是:天职,荣誉,国家;永远都是热血、汗水、眼泪,如同我们追寻方向、光明和真理。

    And 20 years after, on the other side of the globe, again the filth of murky foxholes, the stench of ghostly trenches, the slime of dripping dugouts; those boiling suns of relentless heat, those torrential rains of devastating storms; the loneliness and utter desolation of jungle trails; the bitterness of long separation from those they loved and cherished; the deadly pestilence of tropical disease; the horror of stricken areas of war; their resolute and determined defense, their swift and sure attack, their indomitable purpose, their complete and decisive victory -- always victory. Always through the bloody haze of their last reverberating shot, the vision of gaunt, ghastly men reverently following your password of: Duty, Honor, Country.

    二十年后,在地球的另一端,还是阴暗藏兵洞的污秽,恐怖的战壕里的臭气,四处掉渣的坑道里的泥泞;日复一日的毒辣火热的太阳,一场又一场摧枯拉朽风暴带来的倾盆大雨;孤寂和极其荒凉的荆棘小路;与他们深爱的和珍惜的人们长期分离的痛苦;热带瘟疫的蔓延;战火蹂躏过的恐怖地带;他们坚决的固守,他们机敏的进攻,他们大无畏的意志,他们完美的决定性的胜利――永远胜利。通过他们最后一枪的血色雾霭,永远都看见消瘦凶悍的军人虔诚地遵循你们的口令:天职、荣誉、国家。

    The code which those words perpetuate embraces the highest moral laws and will stand the test of any ethics or philosophies ever promulgated for the uplift of mankind. Its requirements are for the things that are right, and its restraints are from the things that are wrong.

    这个准则因这些文字而永垂不朽,蕴含着博大精深的道德定律,经得起为人类进步而弘扬的任何伦理与理念的考验。它的要求来自错误,它的要求为了正确。

    The soldier, above all other men, is required to practice the greatest act of religious training -- sacrifice.

    军人,比其他所有人,都应该践行这个最伟大的宗教修炼――牺牲。

    In battle and in the face of danger and death, he discloses those divine attributes which his Maker gave when he created man in his own image. No physical courage and no brute instinct can take the place of the Divine help which alone can sustain him.

    在战斗中和危险与死亡面前,他诠释了这些他的缔造者按其意志打造他时赋予的神圣属性。没有肉体勇气和生物本能可以神助――仅此即可挺起他的脊梁。

    However horrible the incidents of war may be, the soldier who is called upon to offer and to give his life for his country is the noblest development of mankind.

    无论战事何等恐怖,应召为国捐躯的军人都是人类最高尚的进化。

    You now face a new world -- a world of change. The thrust into outer space of the satellite, spheres, and missiles mark the beginning of another epoch in the long story of mankind. In the five or more billions of years the scientists tell us it has taken to form the earth, in the three or more billion years of development of the human race, there has never been a more abrupt or staggering evolution. We deal now not with things of this world alone, but with the illimitable distances and as yet unfathomed mysteries of the universe. We are reaching out for a new and boundless frontier.

    你们现在面对一个新世界――一个变化的世界。卫星、飞船、导弹飞入太空标志着人类漫长历史的新纪元的开始。科学家告诉我们地球的形成用了五十多亿年,人类的进化用了三十多亿年,期间进化没有突变。我们现在要处理的不仅是地球上的事物,还有无限远处未知的宇宙神话。

    We speak in strange terms: of harnessing the cosmic energy; of making winds and tides work for us; of creating unheard synthetic materials to supplement or even replace our old standard basics; to purify sea water for our drink; of mining ocean floors for new fields of wealth and food; of disease preventatives to expand life into the hundreds of years; of controlling the weather for a more equitable distribution of heat and cold, of rain and shine; of space ships to the moon; of the primary target in war, no longer limited to the armed forces of an enemy, but instead to include his civil populations; of ultimate conflict between a united human race and the sinister forces of some other planetary galaxy; of such dreams and fantasies as to make life the most exciting of all time.

    我们现在用一下生僻的术语讲话:什么收获宇宙能量;利用风能和潮汐能;创造闻所未闻的合成材料补充甚至取代传统材料;净化海水供饮用;开采海底矿藏作为新财富和事物来源;预防疾病以把人类寿命提高到几百年;控制天气使冷、热,雨天、晴天分布更均匀;宇宙飞船登月;战争最本原的目的,不再是敌方的武装力量,取而代之的是包括了平民人口;统一的地球人与银河系其它行星的敌对力量的终极冲突;使生活在所有时间都最令人兴奋的梦幻。

    And through all this welter of change and development, your mission remains fixed, determined, inviolable: it is to win our wars.

    尽管世界风云变换,你们的使命始终未变,神圣不可侵犯:打赢战争。

    Everything else in your professional career is but corollary to this vital dedication. All other public purposes, all other public projects, all other public needs, great or small, will find others for their accomplishment. But you are the ones who are trained to fight. Yours is the profession of arms, the will to win, the sure knowledge that in war there is no substitute for victory; that if you lose, the nation will be destroyed; that the very obsession of your public service must be: Duty, Honor, Country.

    你们职业生涯以外的一切不过是这种生命奉献的必然结果。所有其它公共目标,其它公共项目,其它公共需求,无论大小,都会找到其他人来实现。而你们是为打仗而培养的。你们的是战争的职业,是取胜的意志,是战争中除了取胜别无选择的坚定认识;如果你们战败,则国破家亡;你们从军的牢固信念只能是:天职、荣誉和国家。

    Others will debate the controversial issues, national and international, which divide men's minds; but serene, calm, aloof, you stand as the Nation's war-guardian, as its lifeguard from the raging tides of international conflict, as its gladiator in the arena of battle. For a century and a half you have defended, guarded, and protected its hallowed traditions of liberty and freedom, of right and justice.

    有人会争论这个矛盾的议题,国家的和国际的,它使人们的思想一分为二;但是你淡然平静地作为国家在国际冲突的怒潮中的战争卫士、生命卫士,作为战斗舞台上的斗士独立于你的岗位。一个半世纪以来,你们捍卫、守护和守卫了自由和解放的神圣传统!

    Let civilian voices argue the merits or demerits of our processes of government; whether our strength is being sapped by deficit financing, indulged in too long, by federal paternalism grown too mighty, by power groups grown too arrogant, by politics grown too corrupt, by crime grown too rampant, by morals grown too low, by taxes grown too high, by extremists grown too violent; whether our personal liberties are as thorough and complete as they should be. These great national problems are not for your professional participation or military solution. Your guidepost stands out like a ten-fold beacon in the night: Duty, Honor, Country.

    让平民的声音评价政府作为的优劣;不管是否我们的力量被财政削弱,被纵情太久削弱,被联邦政府的家长主义过甚削弱,被强势集团的傲慢削弱,被政治太过腐败削弱,被犯罪太过猖獗削弱,被道德日渐衰落削弱,被税率过高削弱,被极端分子太过凶残削弱;不管是否我们的人身自由是否如同过去一样彻底和完备。这些国家大事不是你们的职业或军人所能解决的。你们的路标如同黑夜里的万丈灯塔:天职、荣誉、国家。

    You are the leaven which binds together the entire fabric of our national system of defense. From your ranks come the great captains who hold the nation's destiny in their hands the moment the war tocsin sounds. The Long Gray Line has never failed us. Were you to do so, a million ghosts in olive drab, in brown khaki, in blue and gray, would rise from their white crosses thundering those magic words: Duty, Honor, Country.

    你们是把国家防御体系结合为整体的胶和剂。从你们的队列里走出很多将领在战争警报响起时掌握着国家的命运。西点的学子们从来没有让我们失望。如果那样,百万身着灰黄、褐色、蓝色和灰色军服的鬼神会跳出坟墓雷鸣般地吼出:天职、荣誉、国家。

    This does not mean that you are war mongers.

    这并不意味着你们是战争贩子。

    On the contrary, the soldier, above all other people, prays for peace, for he must suffer and bear the deepest wounds and scars of war.

    相反,军人,比其他任何人都呼吁和平,因为他必须遭受和承担战争带来的最深的伤痛和伤疤。

    But always in our ears ring the ominous words of Plato, that wisest of all philosophers: "Only the dead have seen the end of war."

    但是我们耳边总是响起人类最伟大的哲学家柏拉图的名言:“只有死人才能看到战争的结束”。

    麦克阿瑟夫妇之墓麦克阿瑟夫妇之墓

    The shadows are lengthening for me. The twilight is here. My days of old have vanished, tone and tint. They have gone glimmering through the dreams of things that were. Their memory is one of wondrous beauty, watered by tears, and coaxed and caressed by the smiles of yesterday. I listen vainly, but with thirsty ears, for the witching melody of faint bugles blowing reveille, of far drums beating the long roll. In my dreams I hear again the crash of guns, the rattle of musketry, the strange, mournful mutter of the battlefield.

    我的影子在拉长。曙光再现。我的余生、语调、色彩都在消退。它们如同万物一样闪着梦想的微光离去。它们的记忆是奇妙的美丽之一,用泪水滋润,用昨天的微笑抚慰。我那渴望的耳朵徒劳地聆听微弱起床号的旋律和遥远的长长点名的军鼓的旋律。在我的梦里又一次听到大炮的怒吼,步枪的鸣响和战场上异样的哀伤的低语。

    But in the evening of my memory, always I come back to West Point.

    Always there echoes and re-echoes: Duty, Honor, Country.

    Today marks my final roll call with you, but I want you to know that when I cross the river my last conscious thoughts will be of The Corps, and The Corps, and The Corps.

    但是在我记忆的黄昏,我总是回到西点。永远回响那些声音:天职、荣誉、国家。今天是我最后一次和你们点名,但是我希望你们知道当我跨过那条河时我最后的思想依然是军队、军队军队。

    I bid you farewell.

    再会!

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