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  • 雅诺马马印度人

    雅诺马马印度人 \n\n\n'Yanomami' means 'Human Being'.'雅诺马马'就是'人'.

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    简介/雅诺马马印度人 编辑

    雅诺马马印度人


    'Yanomami' means 'Human Being'.'雅诺马马'就是'人'.

    The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe (also called Yanamamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma) made up of four subdivisions of Indians which live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern Brazil.有一个土著部落的雅诺马马(又称yanamamo,yanomam,而sanuma)由四个区分印第安人生活在我国南方的热带雨林和委内瑞拉巴西北部. Each subdivision has its own language.每个分部都有自己的语言. They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area.其中包括居住在北部sanema界,其中居住在东南部ninam业yanomam其中居住的东南部和西南部yanomamo所住的雅诺马马区.

    Of the approximately 20,000 Yanomami alive today, about 12,000 of these are Yanomamo.雅诺马马健在的大约两万,其中yanomamo12000.



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    相关知识/雅诺马马印度人 编辑

     

    Villages村庄
    The Yanomami live in about hundreds of small villages, grouped by families in one large communal dwelling called a Shabono; this disc-shaped structure with an open-air central plaza is an earthly version of their gods' abode.Ý They hunt and fish over a wide range and tend gardens in harmony with the forest.雅诺马马住约数百小村庄按一户住家的大型公用称为shabono;这一盘形结构,一个露天中央广场,是人间版本的神明abode.ý他们狩猎和鱼在广泛、倾向于森林公园和谐相处. Villages are autonomous but constantly will interact with each other.乡村自治,但彼此的互动会不断. The villages, which contain between 40 and 300 individuals, are scattered thinly throughout the Amazon Forest.村庄,含有40至300人,且分散各地薄亚马孙森林. The distance between villages may vary from a few hours walk to a ten day walk.距离村庄不相同步行数小时到10天走路.



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    Warriors:勇士:




    Though many Yanomami are peace, many are fierce warriors.虽然有许多雅诺马马和平,许多激烈勇士. Sometimes their warring is to capture women, so that their best warriors can maximize their reproductive success.有时他们交战是捕捉女性,使他们能够最大限度地发挥最佳勇士生殖成功.

    In general, warring villages are usually several days walk from each other, where as tranquil ones may be less than a day.一般而言,通常几天走路交战村庄相互由于那里的宁静可能少于一天. Villages will usually fission when the population reaches 100 to 150 people but in times of warfare villages will not split before they reach a population of around 300 individuals.村庄裂变时通常达到100至150人的人口,但在战争时期,不会村庄分裂才达到的人口约有300人.

    Villages may go to war for a number of reasons and warfare makes up a large part of Yanomami life.部落开战,有几个原因,并弥补战争很大一部分雅诺马马生活.

    About 40% of adult males have killed another person and about 25% of adult males will die from some form of violence.大约有40%的成年男子杀死另一人约25%的成年男性死于某种暴力. Violence will vary from chest pounding, in which opponents take turns hitting each others on the chest, to club fights, to raids which may involve the killing of individuals and abducting the women, to all out warfare.暴力因胸部冲击,而对手轮流打对方的胸部、为了俱乐部斗殴,其中可能牵涉到袭击和绑架人杀害的女子所有出战.



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    Spiritual Beliefs精神信仰
    The Yanomami people's traditions are shaped by the belief that the natural and spiritual world are a unified force; nature creates everything, and is sacred.雅诺马马人的传统,形成了自然与精神,认为世界是统一的力量;大自然创造的一切,是神圣的.

    They believe that their fate, and the fate of all people, is inescapably linked to the fate of the environment; with its destruction, humanity is committing suicide.他们相信命运,所有人的命运,是不可避免的命运联系在一起的环境;它毁灭,人类是自杀.

    Their spiritual leader is a shaman.巫师是他们的精神领袖.



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    Trade贸易
    Trade also is another important aspect of Yanomami life and helps to reduce the chances of warfare between villages.贸易也是人生的另一个重要方面雅诺马马,有助于减少发生战争的村庄之间. Often one village will have manufactured goods that are badly needed by an other village.往往一个村庄,将工业品的其他急需村.

    The village that depends on these goods will give the other village wives in return for the goods.村里依靠这些产品会给其他村的妻子,以换取货物.



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    Marriage婚姻
    Marriage arrangements are not only vital in forging alliances but keeping the peace between families as well.婚姻安排不仅对于结盟而维护和平和家庭之间. Most women have prearranged marriages and marry at a young age.大多数妇女都悉心婚娶一个年纪.

    The preferred marriage is the "bilateral cross-cousin marriage" which helps produce strong relationships between families and villages.首选婚姻是"双边交叉表亲结婚"的关系,从而产生强烈的家庭和村庄.







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    Forest People (Hunters) - River People (Fishing)森林人(猎人)--河人(渔业)
    Today about 95% of the Yanomami live deep within the Amazon forest as compared to the 5% who live along the major rivers.今天大约有95%的雅诺马马住在亚马孙森林比较深的百分之五住沿线主要河流.

    Compared to the "forest people," the "river people" are much more sedentary and subsist by fishing and trading goods such as canoes and hooks with other villages.比起"森林人"、"河"、更舒展的生存渔货交易等由于独木舟、钩与其他村庄.



    The "forest people" are horticulturists as well as hunters and gathers."森林人"是猎人和园艺以及集.



    They will spend up to two hours of their day "garden farming" which is quite a labor intensive process.他们将花一天多达两小时的"农园",其中有不少是劳动密集型过程. Some of the crops grown include sweet potatoes, bananas, sugar cane and tobacco.包括一些农作物种植甘薯、香蕉、甘蔗、烟草. However as horticulturists the Yanomami do not get sufficient protein from their crops.但是由于没有得到足够的Yanomami园艺蛋白质农作物. Therefore the Yanomami will spend as much as 60% of their time trekking.因此雅诺马马会动用高达60%的时间行行.

    Men usually make up the hunters and the women the gathers.通常男人和妇女组成的集狩猎. Men will go on long distant hunts that may last up to a week.男性则会在遥远的猎龙可能长达一周. The fact that just about all of the Yanomami live deep within the forest has been quite significant for their survival.事实上,世界各国的雅诺马马深厚的生活已经相当明显的森林生存.

    Since most outsiders have invaded the Amazon via the large rivers, the Yanomami have been able to live in isolation until very recently.由于大多数外人侵入,经大河亚马逊、雅诺马马都能够生活在孤立直到最近. Because of this they have been able to retain their culture and their identity which many Indians of the Amazon have lost.也因此得以保留自己的文化和身份的许多印度人亚马逊遗失.



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    1980's - The Gold Rush80年代-淘金
    The Yanomami had very little contact with the outside world until the 1980's.雅诺马马已经很少与外界接触,直到80年代.

    Since 1987, the Yanomami have seen about 10% of their entire population - over 2,000 people - decimated by massacres and diseases brought by invaders.自1987年以来,雅诺马马看过他们全部人口约10%至两千人锐减到屠杀和疾病带来的侵略者.

    The Yanomamo is the most well known and best documented of the four division partly because they have been victims of a recent gold rush.yanomamo是最广为人知的最佳记录,部分是因为他们的四个师已伤亡最近一个淘金. After gold was discovered on Yanomami land in the mid-1980's, thousands of miners illegally rushed into the territory.雅诺马马土地被发现后,金在80年代中期,数千名矿工非法闯入境内. The constant flights of supply planes and the noise from generators and pumps used in the mining operation has frightened away the game animals the Indians rely on as a key source of protein in their diet.供应固定航班的飞机噪音及采矿用发电机、水泵运行惊慌游戏以外的动物印度人靠作为蛋白质的主要来源. High pressure hoses are used to wash away river banks, silting the rivers and destroying spawning grounds.高压软管被用来洗去河岸,淤塞河道,破坏产卵场.

    Mercury is used to separate the gold from soil and rock.汞是用来区分黄金从土壤和岩石. It is then dumped in the rivers haphazardly.然后是胡乱弃置在河川. Mercury bio-accumulates and reeks havoc on the entire ecosystem.汞的生物累积及风肆虐着整个生态系统. The effects of mercury poisoning reach even the surrounding trees, some of which rely on birds and fish to disperse their seeds.汞中毒效果达到甚至周边树木其中有些靠种鸟类和鱼类驱散他们. The mercury ascends the food chain up to the Yanomami in the form of a neurotoxin that especially affects child development.水银下楼到雅诺马马食物链的形式,尤其是影响儿童神经发展. The most devastating statistic of them all: child mortality rates have skyrocketed while birth rates have declined.其中最具破坏力的所有统计:儿童死亡率节节上升,而出生率下降.

    The influence of the miners goes well beyond physical health.影响远远超出了矿工的身体健康. They introduce alcohol outside of ritual which exacerbates existing rivalries and leads to violence.他们推出酒精以外礼仪加剧现有混战,导致暴力. Weakened by illness and unable to produce and hunt enough food, the Yanomami are reduced to begging and most recently trading sex for food.因生病而不能削弱和狩猎生产足够的粮食,雅诺马马都沦为乞丐和最近交易性食品.

    For the Yanomami what was once an intricate social system patterned on trading and bartering goods and food amongst themselves has become a game of deadly high stakes where they are trading their culture for their very existence.雅诺马马曾经一度为错综复杂的社会制度和易货交易模式之间的货物和食品已成为游戏致命的赌注何处贸易文化为其生存.

    The effects are dire.可怕的效果. Disoriented by the influx of miners with their unfamiliar culture, technology and diseases, their self-respect has plummeted as their belief and cultural systems are undermined.迷失的矿工与陌生涌入文化、科技及疾病自尊一落千丈作为自己的信仰和文化系统被破坏. The Yanomami are not being integrated into Western society; instead begging, prostitution and drunkenness are being introduced into theirs.雅诺马马不被纳入西方社会;不是乞讨、卖淫和酗酒正在引进身上.

    In 1992, the Yanomami Territory was demarcated and ratified, yet the government has not consistently kept its commitment to protect their land.1992年,雅诺马马领土划分和批准、但政府却始终没有信守承诺,以保护自己的土地.

    Supported by politicians and business people, the gold miners assault escalated.政界和商界人士的支持,黄金矿工殴打升级. In July 1993, a group of miners tried to exterminate the village of Haximu, killing 16 Yanomami, in what Brazilian Attorney General Aristides Junqueira classified as genocide.1993年7月,一组矿工试图灭绝haximu村,造成16名雅诺马马,什么律政司勉励勉励巴西列为种族灭绝. Despite international outcry spurred by the massacre, miners continue to enter the territory illegally.尽管国际舆论哗然带动的屠杀,矿工继续非法入境.

    According to the Commission for the Creation of the Yanomami Park (CCPY) in Sao Paulo and the Indianist Missionary Council (CIMI) in Brasilia, state and local politicians are fighting to reduce the Yanomami territory because they want access to its rich mineral deposits.根据该委员会的成立雅诺马马公园(ccpy)圣保罗和印第安人传教会(cimi)巴西利亚国家和地方政客们战斗,以减少雅诺马马境内因为他们想获得丰富的矿藏. There is little question that if this happens, the gold prospectors will be replaced by large scale commercial mining operations that will only compound the devastation of the Yanomami and the rainforest.毫无疑问,如果这种情况发生,黄金淘金将会由大规模的商业开采作业,只会破坏的化合物雅诺马马和雨林.

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