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  • 龙舌兰属

    龙舌兰属(学名:Agave L.)是隶属于天门冬科的一属,约300多种,多年生常绿开花植物。分布于美洲,喜温暖气候。茎短,叶多硬质,排列成莲座形,边缘锯齿状。开花时花序从生长点伸出,花后开花的莲座会枯萎死亡,但花序上及莲座底部的吸芽可作为母株生命的延续。外观类似阿福花科的芦荟,但两者的亲缘关系并不相近。

    编辑摘要

    基本信息 编辑信息模块

    中文学名: 龙舌兰属 别名: 龙舌掌、番麻、万年兰、百年草
    外文名: Agave 拉丁学名: Agave L.
    界: 植物界 门: 被子植物门(Magnoliophyta)
    纲: 单子叶植物纲(Monocotyledoneae) 亚纲: 百合亚纲(Liliidae)
    目: 天门冬目(Asparagales)或百合目(Liliales) 科: 龙舌兰科(Agavaceae)
    属: 龙舌兰属 Agave 种: 世界:300种;中国:3种
    分布区域: 美洲(中国有逸生)
    主要价值: 世界著名的纤维植物之一 形态特征: 叶呈莲座式排列,大而肥厚

    目录

    形态特征/龙舌兰属 编辑

    龙舌兰属 龙舌兰属

    多年生植物。 无茎或有极短的茎。叶呈莲座式排列,大而肥厚,肉质或稍带木质,边缘常有刺或偶而无刺,顶端常有硬尖刺。花茎粗壮高大,具分枝;花通常排列成大型稠密的顶生穗状花序或圆锥花序,有些种类每年或隔年开花一次,另一些种类只开花结果一次,开花后便死亡;花被管短,花被裂片6,狭而相似;雄蕊6,着生于花被管喉部或管内;花丝细长,常伸出于花被外,花药丁字形着生;子房下位,3室,每室有胚珠多数,花柱线形,柱头3裂。蒴果长椭圆形,室背3瓣开裂;种子多数,薄而扁平,黑色。细胞染色体基数x=30。  

    分布范围/龙舌兰属 编辑

    原产西半球干旱和半干旱的热带地区,尤以墨西哥的种类最多。广东、福建和云南有逸生。  

    物种分类/龙舌兰属 编辑

    龙舌兰 龙舌兰

    龙舌兰属约有200个物种。  

    Agave acicularis Trel.

    Agave acklinicola Trel.

    Agave × ajoensis W.C. odgs.

    Agave aktites Gentry

    Agave albescens Trel.

    Agave albomarginata Gentry

    Agave albopilosa I.Cabral, Villarreal & A.E.Estrada

    Agave aloides Jacobi

    Agave americana L.

    Agave angustiarum Trel.

    Agave angustissima Engelm.

    Agave anomala Trel.

    Agave antillarum Descourt.

    Agave applanata Lem. ex Jacobi

    Agave arcedianoensis Cházaro, O.M.Valencia & A.Vázquez

    Agave × arizonica Gentry & J. .Weber

    Agave arubensis ummelinck

    Agave asperrima Jacobi

    Agave a virens Karw. ex Salm-Dyck

    Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck

    Agave aurea Brandegee

    Agave avellanidens Trel.

    Agave bahamana Trel.

    Agave banlan Perr.

    Agave baxteri Baker

    Agave beauleriana Jacobi

    Agave bernhardii Jacobi

    Agave bessereriana Van outte

    Agave boldinghiana Trel.

    Agave bovicornuta Gentry

    Agave braceana Trel.

    Agave bracteosa S.Watson ex Engelm.

    Agave brevipetala Trel.

    Agave brevispina Trel.

    Agave brittoniana Trel.

    Agave cacozela Trel.

    Agave cajalbanensis A.Álvarez

    Agave calderonii Trel.

    Agave calodonta A.Berger

    Agave cantala ( aw.) Roxb. ex Salm-Dyck

    Agave cantala Roxb.

    Agave capensis Gentry

    Agave caribaeicola Trel.

    Agave × cavanillesii D.Guillot & P.Van der Meer

    Agave cerulata Trel.

    Agave chazaroi A.Vázquez & O.M.Valencia

    Agave chiapensis Jacobi

    Agave chrysantha Peebles

    Agave chrysoglossa I.M.Johnst.

    Agave cocui Trel.

    Agave collina Greenm.

    Agave colorata Gentry

    Agave concinna Lem.

    Agave congesta Gentry

    Agave cookei Woodrow

    Agave cucullata Lem. ex Jacobi

    Agave cundinamarcensis A.Berger

    Agave cupreata Trel. & A.Berger

    Agave dasylirioides Jacobi & Bouch.

    Agave datylio F.A.C.Weber

    Agave davillonii Baker

    Agave de-meesteriana Jacobi

    Agave deamiana Trel.

    Agave decaisneana Jacobi

    Agave decipiens Baker

    Agave delamateri W.C. odgs. & Slauson

    Agave deserti Engelm.

    Agave desmettiana Jacobi

    Agave diacantha Royle

    Agave difformis A.Berger

    Agave durangensis Gentry

    Agave dussiana Trel.

    Agave eggersiana Trel.

    Agave ehrenbergii Jacobi

    Agave elizae A.Berger

    Agave ellemeetiana Jacobi

    Agave ensifera Jacobi

    Agave entea artwich

    Agave erosa A.Berger

    Agave erubescens Ellemeet

    Agave evadens Trel.

    Agave felgeri Gentry

    Agave fenzliana Jacobi

    Agave filifera Salm-Dyck

    Agave flexispina Trel.

    Agave fortiflora Gentry

    Agave fourcroydes Lem.

    Agave fragrantissima Jacq.

    Agave franzosini Baker

    Agave fridericii A.Berger

    Agave funkiana K.Koch & C.D.Bouché

    Agave galeottii Baker

    Agave garciae-mendozae Galván & L. ern.

    Agave geminiflora (Tagl.) Ker Gawl.

    Agave gentryi B.Ullrich

    Agave ghiesbreghtii Lem. ex Jacobi

    Agave gigantensis Gentry

    Agave gilbertii A.Berger

    Agave glabra Karw.

    Agave glaucescens Otto

    Agave × glomeruliflora (Engelm.) A.Berger

    Agave goeppertiana Jacobi

    Agave gonzaloi D.Guillot & P.Van der Meer

    Agave gracilipes Trel.

    Agave grandibracteata .Ross

    Agave granulosa Scheidw.

    Agave grisea Trel.

    Agave guadalajarana Trel.

    Agave guedeneyrii oullet

    Agave × guemensis D.Guillot & P.Van der Meer

    Agave guiengola Gentry

    Agave gutierreziana Trel.

    Agave gypsophila Gentry

    Agave harrisii Trel.

    Agave havardiana Trel.

    Agave henriquesii Baker

    Agave hiemiflora Gentry

    Agave hookeri Jacobi

    Agave horizontalis Jacobi

    Agave horrida Lem. ex Jacobi

    Agave humboldtiana Jacobi

    Agave hurteri Trel.

    Agave impressa Gentry

    Agave inaequidens K.Koch

    Agave inaguensis Trel.

    Agave indagatorum Trel.

    Agave intermixta Trel.

    Agave isthmensis A.García-Mend. & F.Palma

    Agave jaiboli Gentry

    Agave jarucoensis A.Álvarez

    Agave karatto Mill.

    Agave karwinskii Zucc.

    Agave kellermaniana Trel.

    Agave kerchovei Lem.

    Agave kewensis Jacobi

    Agave lagunae Trel.

    Agave laticincta Verschaff.

    Agave lechuguilla Torr.

    Agave lemairei Verschaff.

    Agave lempana Trel.

    Agave lindleyi Jacobi

    Agave littaeaoides Pamp.

    Agave longipes Trel.

    Agave longisepala Tod.

    Agave macroacantha Zucc.

    Agave mapisaga Trel.

    Agave margaritae Brandegee

    Agave marmorata Roezl

    Agave × massiliensis Trel.

    Agave maximiliana Baker

    Agave maximowicziana Regel

    Agave mckelveyana Gentry

    Agave microceps (Kimnach) A.Vázquez & Cházaro

    Agave millspaughii Trel.

    Agave minarum Trel.

    Agave minor Proctor

    Agave missionum Trel.

    Agave mitis Mart.

    Agave monostachya Sessé & Moc.

    Agave montana Villarreal

    Agave montium-sancticaroli García-Mend.

    Agave moranii Gentry

    Agave multifilifera Gentry

    Agave multiflora Tod.

    Agave murpheyi Gibson

    Agave nashii Trel.

    Agave nayaritensis Gentry

    Agave neglecta Small

    Agave nickelsii Rol.-Goss.

    Agave nissonii Baker

    Agave nizandensis Cutak

    Agave nussaviorum García-Mend.

    Agave obscura Schiede ex Schltdl.

    Agave obscura Schiede

    Agave ocahui Gentry

    Agave offoyana De Smet ex Jacobi

    Agave origiesiana (Roezl) Trel.

    Agave ornithobroma Gentry

    Agave oroensis Gentry

    Agave ortgiesiana (Baker) Trel.

    Agave ovatifolia G.D.Starr & Villarreal

    Agave pachycentra Trel.

    Agave pallida Sartorius ex Jacobi

    Agave palmeri Engelm.

    Agave pampaniniana A.Berger

    Agave papyrocarpa Trel.

    Agave parrasana A.Berger

    Agave parryi Engelm.

    Agave parvidentata Trel.

    Agave parviflora Torr. 小花龙舌兰

    Agave paupera A.Berger

    Agave pavoliniana Pamp.

    Agave peacockii Croucher

    Agave pelona Gentry

    Agave pendula Schnittsp.

    Agave petiolata Trel.

    Agave pe phila A.García-Mend. & E.Martínez

    Agave phillipsiana W.C. odgs.

    Agave pintilla S.González, M.González & L.Reséndiz

    Agave planera Fasio

    Agave polianthiflora Gentry

    Agave polyacantha aw.

    Agave potatorum Zucc.

    Agave potreriana Trel.

    Agave promontorii Trel.

    Agave prostrata Mart. ex Dragendorff

    Agave pulcherrima Otto

    Agave pulverulenta Verschaff.

    Agave × pumila De Smet ex Baker

    Agave purpurea Souza Novelo

    Agave regia Baker

    Agave rhodacantha Trel.

    Agave × romani Baker

    Agave × rossellonensis D.Guillot & P.Van der Meer

    Agave rovelliana Tod.

    Agave rudis Lem. ex Jacobi

    Agave rutteniae ummelinck

    Agave rzedowskiana P.Carrillo, Vega & R.Delgad.

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck

    Agave scaposa Gentry

    Agave schidigera Lem.

    Agave schmithiana Jacobi

    Agave schneideriana A.Berger

    Agave schottii Engelm.

    Agave sebastiana Greene

    Agave seemanniana Jacobi

    Agave shaferi Trel.

    Agave shawii Engelm.

    Agave shrevei Gentry

    Agave simonii Andr.

    Agave sisalana Perrine

    Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm.

    Agave smithiana Jacobi

    Agave sobolifera outt.

    Agave sobria Brandegee

    Agave sordida A.Berger

    Agave spicata Cav.

    Agave striata Zucc.

    Agave stricta Salm-Dyck

    Agave stringens Trel.

    Agave subinermis M.Roem.

    Agave subsimplex Trel.

    Agave × taylorea auct.

    Agave tecta Trel.

    Agave tenuifolia Zamudio & E.Sánchez

    Agave teoxamulina Karw. ex M. Roem.

    Agave tequilana F.A.C.Weber

    Agave thomasiae Trel.

    Agave thomsoniana Jacobi

    Agave titanota Gentry

    Agave toumeyana Trel.

    Agave triangularis Jacobi

    Agave ubetskoyana Baker

    Agave tubulata Trel.

    Agave turneri R. .Webb & Salazar-Ceseña

    Agave underwoodii Trel.

    Agave univittata aw.

    Agave utahensis Engelm.

    Agave valenciana Cházaro & A.Vázquez

    Agave vandervinnenii Lem.

    Agave vanderwinneni Jacobi

    Agave vazquezgarciae Cházaro & J.A.Lomelí

    Agave vera-cruz Mill.

    Agave vicina Trel.

    Agave victoriae-reginae T.Moore

    Agave × villare André

    Agave vilmoriniana A.Berger

    Agave viridissima Baker

    Agave vivipara L.

    Agave vizcainoensis Gentry

    Agave wallisii Jacobi

    Agave warelliana Baker

    Agave washingtonensis Baker & Rose

    Agave watsonii J.R.Drumm. & C. .Wright

    Agave weberi J.F.Cels ex J.Poiss.

    Agave wendtii Cházaro

    Agave wercklei F.A.C.Weber ex Wercklé

    Agave wiesenbergensis Wittm.

    Agave wildingii Tod.

    Agave × winteriana A.Berger

    Agave wocomahi Gentry

    Agave woodrowii W.Watson

    Agave xylonacantha Salm-Dyck

    Agave yuccifolia DC. ex Redouté

    Agave zebra Gentry

    主要价值/龙舌兰属 编辑

    本属植物经济价值较大,有些种类的纤维通称龙舌兰麻类,是世界著名的纤维植物之一;有些种类还含有甾体皂苷元,是生产甾体激素药物的重要原料;另一些种类栽培供观赏。叶内的纤维为硬质纤维之一,强韧耐腐,可编绳索和大缆,适为航海用。在我国引入的三种中,剑麻的品质最良,拉力大,次为龙舌兰。  

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    1. 编辑次数:16次 历史版本
    2. 参与编辑人数:15
    3. 最近更新时间:2019-06-12 10:33:30

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